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Kausar Nawaz Shah M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Malik S.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Murtaza N.,BZU | Ullah I.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

In upland cotton, crop maturity is influenced by a number of physiological, phenological, morphological and environmental factors. Selection for this complex trait in segregating populations may be misleading if proper understanding of the direct and indirect effects of these traits is not appropriately understood. Correlation and path analysis techniques were utilized to construct selection criteria to identify early maturing segregants. Results depicted higher genotypic correlations as compared to the phenotypic ones suggesting substantial environmental influence. Earliness index was observed to be negatively correlated with all the traits evaluated except with number of fruiting points on the longest sympodia. Based on path analysis two selection criteria for earliness were evident. First; early and rapid flowering coupled with shorter boll maturation period and the second; low node number of first sympodia coupled with lower number of main stem nodes. Simultaneous improvement in seed cotton yield and earliness of crop maturity required a compromise and determination of a critical point where seed cotton yield and earliness could be maximum.


PubMed | RMIT University, Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Agriculture Research and Development and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Water and sediment samples were collected from up to 17 sites in waterways entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park monthly between November 2009 and April 2010, with the Chemcatcher passive sampler system deployed at these sites in November 2009 and March 2010. Trace metal concentrations were low, with none occurring at concentrations with the potential for adverse ecological effects. The agrochemical residues data showed the presence of a small number of pesticides at very low concentration (ng/L) in the surface waters of streams entering the Corner Inlet, and as widespread, but still limited contamination of sediments. Concentrations of pesticides detected were relatively low and several orders of magnitude below reported ecotoxicological effect and hazardous concentration values. The low levels of pesticides detected in this study indicate that agricultural industries were responsible agrochemical users. This research project is a rarity in aligning both agrochemical usage data obtained from chemical resellers in the target catchment with residue analysis of environmental samples. Based on frequency of detection and concentrations, prometryn is the priority chemical of concern for both the water and sediments studied, but this chemical was not listed in reseller data. Consequently, the risks may be greater than the field data would suggest, and priorities for monitoring different since some commonly used herbicides (such as glyphosate, phenoxy acid herbicides, and sulfonyl urea herbicides) were not screened. Therefore, researchers, academia, industry, and government need to identify ways to achieve a more coordinated land use approach for obtaining information on the use of chemicals in a catchment, their presence in waterways, and the longer term performance of chemicals, particularly where they are used multiple times in a year.


Ponnampalam E.N.,Agriculture Research and Development | Burnett V.F.,Agriculture Research and Development | Norng S.,Agriculture Research and Development | Hopkins D.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%] + subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets = Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) = Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%) = Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%) = FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P < 0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3 mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA + DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and Agriculture Research and Development
Type: | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2015

The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.


Ponnampalam E.N.,Agriculture Research and Development | Ponnampalam E.N.,University of Melbourne | Lewandowski P.A.,Deakin University | Fahri F.T.,University of Melbourne | And 5 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2015

The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. © 2015 AOCS.


PubMed | Deakin University, Agriculture Research and Development and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lipids | Year: 2015

The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

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