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Kausar Nawaz Shah M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Malik S.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Murtaza N.,BZU | Ullah I.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

In upland cotton, crop maturity is influenced by a number of physiological, phenological, morphological and environmental factors. Selection for this complex trait in segregating populations may be misleading if proper understanding of the direct and indirect effects of these traits is not appropriately understood. Correlation and path analysis techniques were utilized to construct selection criteria to identify early maturing segregants. Results depicted higher genotypic correlations as compared to the phenotypic ones suggesting substantial environmental influence. Earliness index was observed to be negatively correlated with all the traits evaluated except with number of fruiting points on the longest sympodia. Based on path analysis two selection criteria for earliness were evident. First; early and rapid flowering coupled with shorter boll maturation period and the second; low node number of first sympodia coupled with lower number of main stem nodes. Simultaneous improvement in seed cotton yield and earliness of crop maturity required a compromise and determination of a critical point where seed cotton yield and earliness could be maximum.

Chauhan S.S.,University of Melbourne | Ponnampalam E.N.,University of Melbourne | Ponnampalam E.N.,Agriculture Research and Development | Celi P.,University of Melbourne | And 4 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of dietary vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on the oxidative status of lambs exposed to short term hot conditions during finishing. Forty-eight lambs (crossbred; 42 ± 2 kg body weight, 7 mo age) were allocated to one of three groups (16 per group) and fed 3 different doses of Vit E and Se. A standard finisher pellet ration (17% CP and 12.57 MJ ME/kg DM) was used as the basis of treatment diets. The doses of Vit E and Se for control (CON), moderate (MOD), and supranutritional (SUP) diets were 28, 130, 228 mg/kg DM as α- tocopherol acetate and 0.16, 0.66, 1.16 mg Se as SelPlex™ kg/DM, respectively. After 4 weeks feeding in individual pens, including 1 week of adaptation, lambs were moved to metabolism cages for 1 week and allocated to one of 2 heat regimes (8 per feeding group): thermoneutral (TN) (18-21 °C and 40-50% relative humidity) or heat stress (HS) (28-40 °C and 30-40% relative humidity) conditions. Dietary Vit E and Se supplementation increased average daily feed intake (P = 0.009) and average daily gain (P = 0.057) linearly (CON to SUP) during the 3 week finisher period before thermal treatments were applied. During thermal treatment, HS elevated (P < 0.001) both respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT). However, there were reductions in both RR (P = 0.05) and RT (P = 0.08) in lambs fed SUP levels of Vit E and Se. The concentration of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) increased (P < 0.001) under HS, but were reduced by the SUP diet (117CARR U) as compared to CON (128CARR U). The concentration of plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were increased (P < 0.001) during HS. Again, lambs fed the SUP diet had 35% lower (P = 0.005) AOPP levels than maximum levels in CON lambs when exposed to heat. Both RR and RT of lambs finished under HS were normalized after 14 h in lairage under TN conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that high levels (SUP) of dietary Vit E and Se improve average daily feed intake and average daily gain, and maintain oxidative balance in finisher lambs exposed to a heat stress challenge. © 2016.

Mosnier E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mosnier E.,Agriculture Research and Development | Etienne M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ramaekers P.,Agriculture Research and Development | Pere M.C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This trial was undertaken to investigate the metabolic changes occurring around farrowing and to assess their relationships with feed intake and metabolism of the sow during lactation. Twenty multiparous crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were catheterized at 70 days of gestation. Blood samples were collected at 37 ± 2 days before farrowing (- 37), daily during the week before (week - 1, day - 7 to day - 1) and the week after farrowing (week + 1, day +1 to day + 7), and then at days 14 (+ 14) and 21 (+ 21) of lactation. At each stage, samples were drawn after an overnight fasting period just before (T0) and at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4) after the morning meal. Feed intake of the sows averaged 6.3 ± 0.3, 8.4 ± 0.3 and 8.5 ± 0.4 kg/day during the first, second and third weeks after farrowing, respectively. Backfat thickness, BW and energy balance did not vary during lactation. Glucose concentration increased progressively before farrowing for T0, T2 and T4 (P < 0.05) while insulin concentration remained constant. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and NEFA at T0 increased within the week - 1 (P < 0.05). The feed intake of the sows during the week + 1 (r2 = - 0.42; P = 0.07), the week + 2 (r2 = - 0.57; P = 0.01) and the week + 3 (r2 = - 0.64; P = 0.004) was negatively correlated with the insulin-to-glucose ratio at T4 during the week - 1. Feed intake during the week + 2 (r2 = - 0.53; P = 0.02) and the week + 3 (r2 = - 0.55; P = 0.02) was negatively correlated with the average leptin concentration during gestation. Energy balance during the week + 1 was negatively correlated with insulin at T0 during the week - 1 (r2 = - 0.53; P = 0.02). Cortisol concentration at day - 37 was positively correlated with the NEFA concentrations at T4 during the week - 1 (r2 = 0.71; P < 0.001) and tended to be negatively correlated with the energy balance during the week + 1 (r2 = - 0.43; P = 0.07) and the week + 2 (r2 = - 0.44; P = 0.06). Our results suggest that the sows with the lower feed intake and the most negative energy balance in early lactation mobilize already their body reserves during gestation. This could be related to an increased insulin resistance during late gestation but remains to be investigated using specific tests for the evaluation of insulin resistance. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ponnampalam E.N.,Agriculture Research and Development | Burnett V.F.,Agriculture Research and Development | Norng S.,Agriculture Research and Development | Hopkins D.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%] + subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets = Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) = Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%) = Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%) = FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P < 0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3 mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA + DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ponnampalam E.N.,Agriculture Research and Development | Ponnampalam E.N.,University of Melbourne | Lewandowski P.A.,Deakin University | Fahri F.T.,University of Melbourne | And 5 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2015

The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. © 2015 AOCS.

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