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Hessari B.,Urmia University | Bruggeman A.,Cyprus Institute | Mohammad Akhoond-Ali A.,Shahid Chamran University | Oweis T.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 2 more authors.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2016

Supplemental irrigation of rainfed winter crops improves and stabilises crop yield and water productivity. Although yield increases by supplemental irrigation are well established at the field level, its potential extent and impact on water resources at the basin level are less researched. This work presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology for identifying areas that are potentially suitable for supplemental irrigation and a computer routine for allocating streamflow for supplemental irrigation in different sub-basins. A case study is presented for the 42 908 km2 upper Karkheh River basin (KRB) in Iran, which has 15 840 km2 of rainfed crop areas. Rainfed crop areas within 1 km from the streams, with slope classes 0-5, 0-8, 0-12, and 0-20 %, were assumed to be suitable for supplemental irrigation. Four streamflow conditions (normal, normal with environmental flow requirements, drought and drought with environmental flow) were considered for the allocation of water resources. Thirty-seven percent (5801 km2) of the rainfed croplands had slopes less than 5 %; 61 % (3559 km2) of this land was suitable for supplemental irrigation, but only 22 % (1278 km2) could be served with irrigation in both autumn (75 mm) and spring (100 mm), under normal flow conditions. If irrigation would be allocated to all suitable land with slopes up to 20 %, 2057 km2 could be irrigated. This would reduce the average annual outflow of the upper KRB by 9 %. If environmental flow requirements are considered, a maximum (0-20 % slopes) of 1444 km2 could receive supplemental irrigation. Under drought conditions a maximum of 1013 km2 could be irrigated, while the outflow would again be reduced by 9 %. Thus, the withdrawal of streamflow for supplemental irrigation has relatively little effect on the outflow of the upper KRB. However, if the main policy goal would be to improve rainfed areas throughout the upper KRB, options for storing surface water need to be developed. © 2016 Author(s). Source


El-Habbasha S.F.,National Research Center of Egypt | Okasha E.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abdelraouf R.E.,National Research Center of Egypt | Mohammed A.S.H.,Agriculture Engineering Research Institute
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

Application of modern irrigation systems which have high efficiency is an important concept should be followed in Egypt for saving part of the irrigation water due to the limited water resources. Two field experiments were conducted at the Research and Production Station, National Research Centre, El-Nubaria Province, El-Behira Governorate, Egypt, during the two successive summer seasons of 2012 and 2013, to study the effect of irrigation systems, water irrigation deficit and fertigation rates on yield, yield attributes, irrigation deficit and irrigation water use efficiency of groundnut grown under water limitation conditions in sandy soils of Egypt. The results show that drip irrigation significantly surpassed sprinkler irrigation in most of the studied characters except, 100-pod weight. Significant difference between irrigation deficit as well as fertigation rates in most of studied characters. The study indicted the possibility of reducing irrigation duty under drip irrigation up to 80 % of the recommended water quantity. The combined fertigation with reduced irrigation duty up to 80 % could effectively produce similar yields with good quality to 100% irrigation quantity plus full rate of NPK. The treatment drip irrigation + 100% irrigation deficit recorded the highest values of most of studied characters while, drip irrigation+ 80% irrigation deficit was the highest in seed oil and protein contents, oil and protein yield/ha. The treatment drip irrigation+100% NPK significantly surpassed the other treatments in most of the studied characters. No significant differences between drip irrigation+80% NPK and sprinkler irrigation+100% NPK in seed yield/ha and pods yield/ha was recorded. © 2014, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved. Source


Baiomy M.A.,Agriculture Engineering Research Institute
ASABE - International Symposium on Air Quality and Waste Management for Agriculture 2010 | Year: 2010

Windrow composting is the production of compost by piling organic matter or biodegradable wastes, like animal manure and crop residues, in long rows. This method is suited to produce large volumes of compost These piles are generally turned to improve porosity, oxygen content, mix, control moisture, and redistribute cooler and hotter portions of the pile. The design and fabrication of a local composting turner machine was the main objective in the present study. The machine was modified and fabricated from local materials at a private sector company which was established through the Regional Council for Agricultural Research and Extension in collaboration of Agriculture Engineering Research Institute. The present research work was conducted at Gimaza research station, Gharbia Governorate to test evaluate the machine performance. The main objectives of this work were: 1- Study chemical properties of some crop residues and animal manure. 2- Design and modify prototype of the compost turner. 3- Fabricate the turner machine locally. 4- Test and evaluate the locally fabricated machine. Turner drum was modified to use double turner drums instead of one drum. It was modified to improve the materials particles size, porosity, aeration and mixing moisture as well as composting quality. Materials from three crop residues (cotton stalks, corn stalks and rice straw) and animal manure were collected after being cut to small sizes (the average from 5 to 50mm), that's to form windrow (3 m width, 1.7m height and 50 m length.). The machine was tested at four forward speeds (2, 3.33, 5 and 6.7 m/min) and four drum rotational speeds (500, 550, 600 and 650 rpm). The optimum resulting conditions are 650 rpm at forward speed 3.33 m/min., temperature generated 65°c and moisture content 60 % after wetting the materials pile. Source


Alazba A.A.,King Saud University | Mattar M.A.,King Saud University | Mattar M.A.,Agriculture Engineering Research Institute | ElNesr M.N.,King Saud University | Amin M.T.,King Saud University
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2011

Friction head loss equations and friction correction factors were evaluated and compared to field observations collected from thirty center pivots with laterals made of PVCs. The friction head loss equations include Darcy-Weisbach (D-W), Hazen-Williams (H-W), and Scobey, in addition to a proposed equation valid for smooth and rough pipe types and for all turbulent flow types. The proposed equation was developed by combining the equations of D-W and H-W, along with the multiple nonlinear regression technique. The friction correction factors were computed by using the typical Christiansen, modified Christiansen, Anwar, and Alazba formulae. The evaluation has been based on statistical error techniques with observed values as a reference. With the combination of modified Christiansen, Anwar, and Alazba formulae, the results revealed that the magnitudes of friction head loss calculated by using the D-W, H-W, and proposed equations were in agreement with field observations. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) values ranged from 1.6 to 1.7 m. As expected, and when the typical Christiansen friction correction factor was used with the D-W, H-W, and proposed equations, the results showed poor agreement between observed and computed friction head loss values. This was clearly reflected by the high RMSD values that ranged from 5.4 to 5.9 m. On the other hand, agreement occurred between observed friction head loss values and those calculated by using the Scobey equation, invalid for PVC pipe type, when combined with the typical Christiansen formula. This interesting finding led to improved results of the Scobey equation through a developed C s coefficient suitably valid for PVC pipe type through analytically mathematical derivation; accordingly, the RMSD value dropped from approximately 8.6 to 1.6 m. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Al-Ghobari H.M.,King Saud University | Mohammad F.S.,King Saud University | El Marazky M.S.A.,King Saud University | El Marazky M.S.A.,Agriculture Engineering Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

The intelligent irrigation technique is a valuable tool for monitoring and quantifying irrigation water added for plants as well as for irrigation scheduling. So, an intelligent irrigation system (IIS) was implemented and tested under sprinkler irrigation system to irrigate wheat crop (Yecora Rojo) at experimental farm of College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, the King Saud University, Riyadh. The, results obtained with this system were consequently compared with the irrigation control system (ICS), which was based on automatic weather station. The results indicated that the applied water saving was significantly affected by IIS irrigation. The water use efficiency under IIS was generally higher (1.37 kg m-3) compared to that under ICS (1.21 kg m-3), resulting maximal irrigation water use efficiency for both growing seasons (average 1.25 kg m-3). It was found that IIS technology provided significant advantages on WUE. In addition; IIS was conserved 26% of irrigation water compared to ICS and an economic yield was obtained. In general; results showed that implementing this technique proved to be an easy flexible practical tool to schedule irrigation. Overall; this technology is recommended for efficient automated irrigation systems and the IIS technique may provide a valuable tool for conserving water planning and irrigation scheduling for wheat and which is extendable to other similar agricultural crops. Source

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