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Lin Z.-C.,Yangzhou University | Dai Q.-G.,Yangzhou University | Ye S.-C.,Yangzhou University | Wu F.-G.,Agriculture Committee of Wujiang County | And 7 more authors.
Rice Science | Year: 2012

We conducted field trials of rice grown in sandy soil and clay soil to determine the effects of nitrogen application levels on the concentration of NH4 +-N in surface water, loss of ammonia through volatilization from paddy fields, rice production, nitrogen-use efficiency, and nitrogen content in the soil profile. The concentration of NH4 +-N in surface water and the amount of ammonia lost through volatilization increased with increasing nitrogen application level, and peaked at 1-3 d after nitrogen application. Less ammonia was lost via volatilization from clay soil than from sandy soil. The amounts of ammonia lost via volatilization after nitrogen application differed depending on the stage when it was applied, from the highest loss to the lowest: N application to promote tillering > the first N topdressing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 4-leaf stage) > basal fertilizer > the second N topdressing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 2-leaf stage). The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from clay soil was 10.49-87.06 kg/hm2, equivalent to 10.92%-21.76% of the nitrogen applied. The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from sandy soil was 11.32-102.43 kg/hm2, equivalent to 11.32%-25.61% of the nitrogen applied. The amount of ammonia lost via volatilization and the concentration of NH4 +-N in surface water peaked simultaneously after nitrogen application; both showed maxima at the tillering stage with the ratio between them ranging from 23.76% to 33.65%. With the increase in nitrogen application level, rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants increased, but nitrogen-use efficiency decreased. Rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants were slightly higher in clay soil than in sandy soil. In the soil, the nitrogen content was the lowest at a depth of 40-50 cm. In any specific soil layer, the soil nitrogen content increased with increasing nitrogen application level, and the soil nitrogen content was higher in clay soil than in sandy soil. In terms of ammonia volatilization, the amount of ammonia lost via volatilization increased markedly when the nitrogen application level exceeded 250 kg/hm2 in the rice growing season. However, for rice production, a suitable nitrogen application level is approximately 300 kg/hm2. Therefore, taking the needs for high crop yields and environmental protection into account, the appropriate nitrogen application level was 250-300 kg/hm2 in these conditions. © 2012 China National Rice Research Institute. Source


Chen J.-D.,Yangzhou University | He L.,Yangzhou University | Lin Z.-C.,Agriculture Committee of Wujiang County | Dai Q.-G.,Yangzhou University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment | Year: 2013

The experiment was set to investigate accumulation of cadmium in 56 varieties of japonica rice of 5 different growth types growing in cadmium-polluted farmlands. The 5 growth types include early-maturity (125 -135 d), mid-maturity (136 - 145 d) and late-maturity (146 - 155 d) mid-japonica rice and early-maturity (156 - 165 d) and mid-maturity (166 - 175 d) late-japonica rice. Results show that Cd concentration in grain of the 56 varieties of rice varied from variety to variety sharply in the range of 0.014 - 0.054 mg · kg-1 (P < 0.05). For Cd concentration in grains among the 56 varieties, ELTO was the highest and Yangjing 687, Siyang 1382, Guanglingxiangjing and Wuxiangjing 9 were lower. For the 5 growth types, the type of early-maturity mid-japonica rice was higher and the type of mid-maturity mid-japonica rice was lower in Cd concentration, being 0.024 and 0.020 mg · kg-1, respectively. The difference between the types of japonica rice was not significant in Cd accumulation coefficient, but significant in Cd transfer coefficient. Source

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