Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute

Karaj, Iran

Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute

Karaj, Iran
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Pouresmael M.,Kharazmi University | Pouresmael M.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Mozafari J.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Khavari-Nejad R.A.,Kharazmi University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Drought sensitivity is considered as a major concern for chickpea (C. arietinum) seed production. Determination of drought adaptation mechanisms is an essential constituent of this crop breeding programs. With this purpose, the present research was conducted to distinguish the molecular basis of chickpea drought tolerance using cDNA-AFLP approach. The expression profile was compared between drought tolerant (ICCV2 and FLIP9855C) and susceptible lines (ILC3279) of chickpea under three drought treatments including well-watered, intermediate, and severe stress; where soil water content was kept at 85–90%, 55–60%, and 25–30% of Field capacity, respectively. Totally, 295 transcriptderived fragments (TDFs) were visualized. Among the differentially expressed TDFs, 72 TDFs were sequenced. Sequenced cDNAs were categorized in different functional groups involved in macromolecules metabolism, cellular transport, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, cell division and energy production. Based on the results, ribosomal protein S8, mitochondrial chaperone, proteases, hydrolases, UDP -glucuronic acid decarboylase, 2-hydroxyisoflavanone dehydratase, NADPH dehydrogenase, chloride channels, calmodulin, ABC transporter, histone deacetylase and factors involved in chloroplast division were among genes that were affected by drought stress. Similarity search in data base showed that cell wall elasticity, isoflavonoids, maintenance of structure and function of proteins through increase in expression of mitochondrial chaperones, programed cell death, and remobilization of storage material from leaves to seeds were among mechanisms that distinguished differences between drought tolerant and drought susceptible lines. © 2015 Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Pouresmael M.,Kharazmi University | Pouresmael M.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Khavari-Nejad R.A.,Kharazmi University | Khavari-Nejad R.A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2015

Drought is a worldwide concern and designation of drought stress adaptive mechanisms is one of the main directions in plant physiology and crop breeding. Genotypes diversity can be used to identify effective unexploited genes and pathways. In order to that, the effect of varying terminal drought intensity treatments on physiological and biochemical traits was evaluated in ILC3279, ICCV2 and FLIP9855 C chickpea lines. Well-watered, intermediate and severe drought treatments were applied from flowering till maturity. Photosynthetic efficiency, membrane stability, soluble sugar and proline content, leaf protein profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities were compared on 1st, 3rd, and 5th week after applying stress. Based on the results, it was found that the susceptibility of photosynthetic machinery of ILC3279 was more than others. Tolerant genotypes responded to drought differently; an increase and a decrease in catalase activity have been observed in ICCV2 and FLIP9855 C, respectively. The prominent role of soluble sugars was observed in ICCV2. Expressions of polypeptides 27 and 45 kDa in tolerant lines refer to their possible role in drought stress adaptation. Generally, in spite of significant variability in chickpea lines to cope with drought, lower ascorbate peroxidase activity, higher peroxidase activity, and higher Fv/Fm ratio can be tested as markers of chickpea drought tolerant. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Pouresmael M.,Kharazmi University | Pouresmael M.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Khavari-Nejad R.A.,Kharazmi University | Khavari-Nejad R.A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013

Crop drought tolerance improvement is one of the most challenging objectives of plant breeding programs. Developing an efficient screening technology and access to genetic variation for the traits contributing toward drought tolerance are major steps in this direction. To go in this quest, an experiment was conducted under controlled condition in a greenhouse. Nine Kabuli chickpea genotypes were grown under well-watered condition (85-90% field capacity (FC)) until start of flowering. Then, the following water treatments were imposed: well-watered, intermediate (55-60% FC), and severe (25-30% FC) drought stress. Physiological and agronomical traits were compared under different water treatments. Drought stress and genotypes interaction was significant in all measured traits, indicating that various genotypes responded differently to drought stress. Among measured traits, electrolyte leakage, stomatal conductance, yield components, and harvest index exhibited the highest variations. Yield components and stomatal conductance showed maximum reduction under drought stress and in susceptible known genotype, ILC3279, reduction reached up to 95%. Principal component analysis indicated that relative water content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and stomatal conductance are the physiological traits with greater contribution toward drought tolerance. Therefore, these traits should be evaluated ahead of many other traits in making selections for drought-tolerant chickpea genotypes. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Pouresmael M.,Kharazmi University | Pouresmael M.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Khavari R.A.,Kharazmi University | Khavari R.A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Drought stress has a major effect on agricultural production worldwide. Evaluation of crop's wild species for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses revealed the presence of a diverse gene pool. This study reports on reactions of three wild species of chickpea to drought stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate wild Cicer species for drought tolerance and to identify which physiological traits can help different species to cope with drought stress successfully. In order to that, the responses of Cicer reticulatum, C. echinospermum and C. juduicum were evaluated under different terminal drought stress treatments including well-watered (85-90% FC), intermediate stress (55-60% FC) and severe stress (25-30% FC).The significant (P<0.05) decline in relative water content was observed in C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum at the 3rd and the 5th week of stress under sever drought treatment, while it was almost unchanged in C.juduicum. The results indicated that the various species possessed different mechanisms for reducing the destructive effects of drought. High efficiency of radiation use through maintaining of a high Fv/Fm ratio in C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum and the greater photosynthesis per unit leaf area through maintaining more chlorophyll contents in C. juduicum and C. reticulatum are the possible mechanisms for drought tolerance. Although increase in osmotic content and cell membrane stability combined with reduction in specific leaf area considered as common responses of these three species of Cicer to drought stress.

Zare M.,Islamic Azad University | Choukan R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Heravan E.M.,Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute | Bihamta M.R.,University of Tehran | Ordookhani K.,Islamic Azad University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

In 2007, seven inbred lines of corn were crossed in a complete diallel cross design (Griffing's method 1). The seven parents and their 42 hybrids were planted in field based on Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in two different environments. The studied traits were days from emergence to silking, days from emergence to physiological maturity, plant height, ear height, area of ear leaf, ear length, area of flag leaf, number of rows per ear, number of kernels per row and grain yield. Results of combined ANOVA revealed that environment effect was significant for all the traits. Based on diallel cross analysis according to Griffing method 1, General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effects were significant for the majority of traits. Reciprocal variance effects were significant for days from emergence to physiological maturity and number of rows per ear that indicate presence of cytoplasmic inheritance. σ2 GCA/ σ2 SCA ratio revealed that additive gene effects were predominant in controlling the majority of traits. Based on high-parent heterosis, general and specific combining abilities of parents and hybrids, K1264.1 inbred line for production of early maturity, increasing number of rows per ear and grain yield, K18 inbred line for increasing number of kernels per row and K3653.5 inbred line for increasing area of flag leaf and number of rows per ear were suitable resources. K3218 × K3653.5 and MO17 × K3653.5 also proved to be the best crosses to increase grain yield. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Khodarahmpour Z.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Choukan R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Bihamta M.R.,University of Tehran | Majidi Hervan E.,Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Maize improvement for high temperature tolerance requires the reliable assessment of parental inbred lines and their combinations. Fifteen maize inbred lines were evaluated during 2007 and 2008 in Shushtar city (Khuzestan Province). The inbred lines were planted at two dates: 6 July, to coincide heat stress with pollination time; and 27 July, as normal planting to avoid high temperature during pollination and grain filling period. In addition, 28 hybrids from a combination of eight selected lines, were evaluated under the same conditions in 2008. Five stress tolerance indices, including mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI) and geometric mean productivity (GMP) were used in this study. Data analysis revealed that the SSI, STI and GMP indices were the more accurate criteria for selection of heat tolerant and high yielding genotypes. The positive and significant correlation of GMP and grain yield under both conditions revealed that this index is more applicable and efficient for selection of parental inbred lines in producing hybrids to be tolerant to high temperatures and high yielding under both conditions. Based on two years' data and using the STI, GMP and MP indices, K166B, K166A and K18×K166B proved to be the most heat tolerant lines and hybrid. Biplot analysis allowed us to distinguish groups of tolerant and sensitive inbred lines and hybrids. Based on the results of this study, the hybrid K18×K166B can be recommended for the Khuzestan region.

Sadigh-Eteghad S.,Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute | Dehnad A.,Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute | Mahmodi J.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Hoseyni H.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2013

Background The potent biomedical properties of Streptomyces secondary metabolites make them a possible source of promising new targets to use as wound-healing-promoting agents. Aim To investigate the properties of a Streptomyces sp. secondary metabolite, the SEM-1-111 fraction, in the healing full-thickness cutaneous wounds. Methods In this experiment, creams were prepared using a Eucerin ointment base with 5%, 10% or 15% SEM-1-111 added. Circular excision wounds were surgically created on the back of Wistar rats, and the creams were applied daily to the wound area. The negative control group was treated with the vehicle, and the positive control group with a commercial phenytoin 1% cream. We analysed planimetric and histological parameters, and the expression of procollagen-I mRNA. Results SEM-1-111 substantially influenced wound healing. The cream containing the highest dose of metabolite (15%) significantly decreased wound size during the study, and histological evaluation showed beneficial effects of this concentration in the wound-healing process. Procollagen-I mRNA levels were significantly increased in both the 15% SEM-1-111 group and the phenytoin group compared with the vehicle control on postoperative day 7. Conclusions Regular topical application of the Streptomyces sp. secondary metabolite SEM-1-111 fraction at a concentration of 15% accelerates the wound-healing process. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

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