Ghasemi Pirbalouti A.,Islamic Azad University |
Ghahfarokhi B.B.,Islamic Azad University |
Ghahfarokhi S.A.M.,Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resource |
Malekpoor F.,Islamic Azad University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015
Valeriana sisymbriifolia Vahl., as an Iranian endemic plant belongs to the family Valerianaceae, is widely distributed in the alpine regions of Iran. This study was done to study phytochemical characteristics of essential oils from the aerial parts (leaves, stem, and flowers) and underground parts (roots and rhizomes) of V. sisymbriifolia collected from four natural habitats in Southwestern Iran. The essential oils from both parts of the plant analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results indicated that there was no significant difference among various populations for essential oil yield, while there was significant difference (. p≤. 0.01) among different parts for oil yield. The essential oil yield of the roots and rhizomes of V. sisymbriifolia (0.25. ml/100. g dry matter) was higher than the aerial parts of the herb (0.08. ml/100. g dry matter). For interaction effects of population. ×. organ, the highest essential oil yield was obtained from the underground parts of the Choobin population with 0.32. ml/100. g dry matter. The major compounds in the essential oil from the aerial parts of V. sisymbriifolia were derivatives of phenol (. p-cresol) and valeric acid (. n-valeric acid and 3-methylvaleric acid). While, hydrocarbon monoterpenes (α-pinene and camphene), oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol and bornyl acetate), and hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (. cis-α-bisabolene) were the main components identified in the roots of rhizomes of V. sisymbriifolia. In conclusion, the main source of variability in chemical composition and oil yield of the studied populations of V. sisymbriifolia seemed to be due to differences in harvested parts of the plant. In total, the essentialoilfrom the aerial parts and roots of V. sisymbriifolia couldbe serving a potentialsource of borneol, camphene, derivatives of valeric acid, and phenol, especially p-cresol and for use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Ajvad F.T.,Bu - Ali Sina University |
Madadi H.,Bu - Ali Sina University |
Gharali B.,Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resource
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014
Intraguild predation (IGP) is an interaction that frequently occurs in natural enemy communities, especially aphidophagous predators. This research investigated IGP intensity between Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae), with Hippodamia variegata Goeze (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Five predator combinations including second and third larvae of H. variegata and third instar larvae of E. balteatus plus control treatment (totally six treatments) were tested. The effect of IGP on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population density was investigated on sweet pepper seedlings under laboratory microcosms. In most combinations, the third instar larvae of E. balteatus alone reduced an A. gossypii population more efficiently than ladybird larvae and their combinations. Furthermore, IGP between third instar of E. balteatus and second larvae of H. variegata was asymmetrical; second instar H. variegata larvae were always the intraguild prey for third instar E. balteatus. The obtained result showed that outcome of IGP interaction on cotton aphid density was non-additive. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.