Agriculture and Food Science Center

Belfield, Ireland

Agriculture and Food Science Center

Belfield, Ireland
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Harrison S.M.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Schmidt O.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Moloney A.P.,Teagasc | Kelly S.D.,UK Environment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Multiple stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O and δ34S) were measured in muscle, muscle lipids and lipid fractions collected from 28 lambs, subjected to a diet-switch and raised on two energy allowances (EAs), to determine tissue turnover and diet-tissue fractionation. The diet-muscle fractionations prior to the diet-switch were estimated to be -44.0‰, +1.9‰ and 0‰ for H, C and S, respectively, while the drinking water was demonstrated to be the main source of muscle O and thus δ18O variation. The diet-intra-muscular lipid fractionations prior to the diet-switch were estimated to be -172.7‰, -1.3‰ and -11.5‰ for H, C and O, respectively. The C half-lives of muscle were determined to be 75.7 and 91.6days for animals receiving the high and low EA, respectively. Extracting temporally resolved pre-slaughter dietary information from meat by analysing bulk muscle, muscle lipids and muscle lipid fractions appeared to be not practicable due to possible incomplete turnover of lipids. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Pataro G.,University of Salerno | Munoz A.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Palgan I.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Noci F.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2011

In this work, the susceptibility to pulsed light (PL) treatments of both a Gram-positive (L. innocua 11288) and a Gram-negative (E. coli DH5-α) bacteria inoculated in apple (pH=3.49, absorption coefficient 13.9cm -1) and orange juices (pH=3.78, absorption coefficient 52.4cm -1) was investigated in a range of energy dosages from 1.8 to 5.5J/cm 2. A laboratory scale continuous flow PL system was set up for the experiments, using a xenon flash-lamp emitting high intensity light in the range of 100-1100nm. The flashes lasted 360μs at a constant frequency of 3Hz.The results highlighted how the lethal effect of pulsed light depended on the energy dose supplied, the absorption properties of liquid food as well as the bacterial strain examined. The higher the quantity of the energy delivered to the juice stream, the greater the inactivation level. However, the absorbance of the inoculated juice strongly influenced the dose deliver and, therefore, the efficiency of the PL treatment. Among the bacteria tested, E. coli cells showed a greater susceptibility to the PL treatment than L. innocua cells in both apple and orange juices. Following treatment at 4J/cm 2, microbial reductions in apple and orange juices were, respectively, 4.00 and 2.90 Log-cycles for E. coli and 2.98 and 0.93 Log-cycles for L. innocua.Sublethally injured cells were also detected for both bacterial strains, thus confirming that membrane damage is an important event in bacterial inactivation by PL. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Munoz A.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Palgan I.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Noci F.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Morgan D.J.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | And 3 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

The non-thermal technologies High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP) and Thermosonication (TS) were applied alone and in combination to study their effect on Escherichia coli inactivation in orange juice. Two different energy settings were chosen in the current study, 'Low' (L) and 'High' (H), being the combinations applied: HILP(L) (4.03 J/cm2), HILP(H) (5.1 J/cm2), TS(L) (2.8 min residence time at 40 °C) and TS(H) (5 min residence time at 50 °C). Both the individual technologies and their combinations (HILP&TS and TS&HILP) were studied. Results showed inactivation ranging from 1.10 (TS(H)) to 2.42 (HILP(H)) log cfu/ml for the hurdles when applied individually and from 2.5 (HILP(L)&TS(H)) to 3.93 (HILP(H)&TS(L)) log cfu/ml for the combined treatments. Similar reductions in E. coli populations were achieved in orange juice by all treatment combinations irrespective of the sequence in which they were applied. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Munoz A.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Caminiti I.M.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Palgan I.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Pataro G.,University of Salerno | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Pulsed light (PL) and Thermosonication (TS) were applied alone or in combination using a continuous system to study their effect on Escherichia coli inactivation in apple juice. Selected quality attributes (pH, °Brix, colour (L, a, b, δE), non-enzymatic browning (NEBI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were also evaluated pre- and post-processing. Two PL (360μs, 3Hz) treatments were selected and the juice exposed to energy dosages of 4.03J/cm 2 ('low' (L)) and 5.1J/cm 2 ('high' (H)) corresponding to 51.5 and 65.4J/mL, respectively. The juice was also processed by TS (24kHz, 100μm) at 40°C for 2.9min (L) or 50°C for 5min (H), corresponding to 1456 and 2531J/ml energy inputs, respectively. The effect of the resulting four energy levels and sequence (PL+TS and TS+PL) was studied. When the technologies were applied individually the maximum reduction achieved was 2.7 and 4.9logCFU/mL (for TS (H) and PL (H) respectively), while most of the combined treatments achieved reductions in the vicinity of 6logCFU/mL, showing an additive effect for both technologies when acting in combination, regardless of the sequence applied. All treatments significantly changed the colour of apple juice and the sequence in which the technologies were applied affected colour significantly (P<0.05). The energy level applied did not affect any of the measured quality attributes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Munoz A.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Munoz A.,University of Granada | Palgan I.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Noci F.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua by combinations of High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP), Ultrasound (US) and Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) and sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (2.5mg/L) or lactic acid (500mg/L) was investigated in two different buffer systems (pH 4 for E. coli and pH 7 for L. innocua). Individually, HILP (3.3J/cm 2), US (126s residence time, 500W, 40°C) and PEF (24kV/cm, 18Hz and 1μs of pulse width) did not induce a microbial reduction of greater than 2.7 or 3.6 log units, for L. innocua and E. coli, respectively. Combined treatment using HILP+PEF sufficiently inactivated E. coli without antimicrobial addition. The addition of either antimicrobial enhanced the effect of US+PEF for both E. coli and L. innocua. The addition of lactic acid enhanced the effect of HILP+US. For L. innocua the addition of nisin enhanced the effect of HILP+PEF. This confirms the potential of selected non-thermal technologies for microbial inactivation when combined with antimicrobials. Industrial relevance: The application of sublethal non-thermal processing and GRAS antimicrobial hurdle combinations has the potential to allow for the production of safe, stable products while also maintaining the desired organoleptic characteristics of a minimally processed product. An initial step to assessing the suitability of non thermal treatments is to evaluate their efficacy in model solutions prior to their study in food systems. © 2012.


Cummins E.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Kennedy R.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Cormican M.,National University of Ireland
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites associated with gastro-intestinal illness. Following a number of high profile outbreaks worldwide, it has emerged as a parasite of major public health concern. A quantitative Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to evaluate the annual risk of infection from Cryptosporidium in tap water in Ireland. The assessment considers the potential initial contamination levels in raw water, oocyst removal and decontamination events following various process stages, including coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. A number of scenarios were analysed to represent potential risks from public water supplies, group water schemes and private wells. Where surface water is used additional physical and chemical water treatment is important in terms of reducing the risk to consumers. The simulated annual risk of illness for immunocompetent individuals was below 1 × 10- 4 per year (as set by the US EPA) except under extreme contamination events. The risk for immunocompromised individuals was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater for the scenarios analysed. The model indicates a reduced risk of infection from tap water that has undergone microfiltration, as this treatment is more robust in the event of high contamination loads. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of watershed protection and the importance of adequate coagulation/flocculation in conventional treatment. The frequency of failure of the treatment process is the most important parameter influencing human risk in conventional treatment. The model developed in this study may be useful for local authorities, government agencies and other stakeholders to evaluate the likely risk of infection given some basic input data on source water and treatment processes used. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Siervo M.,Vitality | Faber P.,University of Aberdeen | Lara J.,Vitality | Gibney E.R.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | And 6 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2015

Objectives. Weight loss (WL) is associated with a decrease in total and resting energy expenditure (EE). We aimed to investigate whether (1) diets with different rate and extent of WL determined different changes in total and resting EE and if (2) they influenced the level of adaptive thermogenesis, defined as the decline in total or resting EE not accounted by changes in body composition. Methods. Three groups of six, obesemen participated in a total fast for 6 days to achieve a 5% WLand a very lowcalorie (VLCD, 2.5 MJ/day) for 3 weeks or a low calorie (LCD, 5.2 MJ/day) diet for 6 weeks to achieve a 10% WL. A four-component modelwas used to measure body composition. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting EE. Total EE was measured by doubly labelled water (VLCD, LCD) and 24-hour whole-body calorimetry (fasting). Results. VLCD and LCD showed a similar degree ofmetabolic adaptation for total EE (VLCD = - 6.2%; LCD = -6.8%). Metabolic adaptation for resting EE was greater in the LCD (-0.4 MJ/day, - 5.3%) compared to the VLCD (-0.1 MJ/day, -1.4%) group. Resting EE did not decrease after shortterm fasting and no evidence of adaptive thermogenesis (+0.4 MJ/day) was found after 5%WL. The rate ofWL was inversely associated with changes in resting EE (n = 30, r = 0.-42, p = 0.01). Conclusions. The rate of WL did not appear to influence the decline in total EE in obese men after 10% WL. Approximately 6% of this decline in total EE was explained by mechanisms of adaptive thermogenesis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Osborne A.,Health science Center | Osborne A.,Teagasc | Blake C.,Health science Center | McNamara J.,Teagasc | And 3 more authors.
Occupational Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Farming is an occupation that predisposes individuals to health problems including musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). There is limited research regarding MSDs among farmers especially in Ireland. Aims: To establish the prevalence of MSDs, identify the most commonly affected body: regions and to explore what factors may influence the development of the most common MSDs among farmers in Ireland. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Irish farmers was conducted. The study sample comprised 600 farmers (100 farmers from each of the six main farm enterprise systems in Ireland). Results: Of the 600 farmers, 56% had experienced a MSD in the previous year. The most commonly experienced MSDs were back pain (37%) and neck/shoulder pain (25%). Other MSDs experienced in the previous year included knee pain (9%), hand-wrist-elbow pain (9%), ankle/foot pain (9%) and hip pain (8%). Overall, MSDs were more common in farmers working longer hours (P<0.05). Back pain was more prevalent in full-time farmers (P<0.05), while prevalence of hip pain was greater in farmers who were older (P<0.01), full time (P<0.05), farming for longer (P<0.01) and working for longer hours (P<0.01). Farm enterprise was not a factor in influencing the development of MSDs. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the number of hours worked by farmers, rather than enterprise specific tasks render farmers more susceptible to MSDs. Further investigation is needed to explore risk factors in the development of MSDs. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved.


Farag K.W.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Lyng J.G.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Morgan D.J.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Cronin D.A.,Agriculture and Food Science Center
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

This study examined the use of pilot-scale radio frequency (RF) heating for thawing beef meat blends (lean, 50:50 lean/fat and fat). The aim was to thaw blocks (4 kg) to within a target temperature range of -1 to +5°C. Post-thawing temperature distribution in the blocks was compared to that of blocks thawed by conventional air thawing. The optimum RF conditions for thawing lean meat was 35 min of RF heating delivered in a noncontinuous fashion (20 min on, 10 min off, and followed by 15 min on) at 400 W, which gave a mean temperature of 0.2°C (SD 1.8). By comparison, conventional thawing was achieved in 50 h 20 min which represented an 85-fold difference in thawing time. Comparable uniformity of temperature distribution was obtained by each method. For the lean/fat mixture and 100% fat, the target range could not be achieved due to problems of runaway heating. The latter phenomenon relates to the manner in which the absorbed energy is transferred throughout the material as influenced by the thermophysical properties of the product. © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


PubMed | Southampton General Hospital, UTNC, Agriculture and Food Science Center, Vitality and University of Aberdeen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolism: clinical and experimental | Year: 2015

Weight loss (WL) is associated with a decrease in total and resting energy expenditure (EE). We aimed to investigate whether (1) diets with different rate and extent of WL determined different changes in total and resting EE and if (2) they influenced the level of adaptive thermogenesis, defined as the decline in total or resting EE not accounted by changes in body composition.Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast for 6 days to achieve a 5% WL and a very low calorie (VLCD, 2.5 MJ/day) for 3 weeks or a low calorie (LCD, 5.2 MJ/day) diet for 6 weeks to achieve a 10% WL. A four-component model was used to measure body composition. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting EE. Total EE was measured by doubly labelled water (VLCD, LCD) and 24-hour whole-body calorimetry (fasting).VLCD and LCD showed a similar degree of metabolic adaptation for total EE (VLCD = -6.2%; LCD = -6.8%). Metabolic adaptation for resting EE was greater in the LCD (-0.4 MJ/day, -5.3%) compared to the VLCD (-0.1 MJ/day, -1.4%) group. Resting EE did not decrease after short-term fasting and no evidence of adaptive thermogenesis (+0.4 MJ/day) was found after 5% WL. The rate of WL was inversely associated with changes in resting EE (n = 30, r = 0.-42, p=0.01).The rate of WL did not appear to influence the decline in total EE in obese men after 10% WL. Approximately 6% of this decline in total EE was explained by mechanisms of adaptive thermogenesis.

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