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Ottawa, Canada

The Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, also referred to as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada , is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing agriculture production, farming income, research and development, inspection, and the regulation of animals and plants. It also has responsibilities regarding rural development. It is popularly called Ag-Canada.The current Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food is Gerry Ritz. The current Deputy Minister is Andrea Lyon. Wikipedia.

Sanfacon H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Viruses | Year: 2015

Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Saady N.M.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

This paper is a comprehensive review of H2 consumption during anaerobic mixed culture H2 dark fermentation with a focus on homoacetogenesis. Homoacetogenesis consumed from 11% to 43% of the H2 yield in single and repeated batch fermentations, respectively. However, its quantification and extent during continuous fermentation are still not well understood. Models incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic controls are required to provide insight into the dynamic of homoacetogenesis during H2 dark fermentation. Currently, no adequate method exists to eliminate homoacetogenesis because it does not depend on the culture's source, pre-treatment, substrate, type of reactor, or operation conditions. Controlling CO2 concentrations during dark fermentation needs further investigation as a potential strategy towards controlling homoacetogenesis. Incorporating radioactive labeling technique in H2 fermentation research could provide information on simultaneous production and consumption of H2 during dark fermentation. Genetic studies investigating blocking H2 consuming pathways and enhancing H2 evolving hydrogenases are suggested towards controlling homoacetogenesis during dark fermentation. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Abbott D.W.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | van Bueren A.L.,University of Groningen
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014

Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to the recent emergence of several new CBM families that display diverse binding profiles and novel functions, elucidating the function of these protein modules has become a much more challenging task. This review summarizes several approaches that have been reported for using primary structure to inform CBM specificity and streamlining their biophysical characterization. In addition we discuss general trends in binding site architecture and several newly identified functions for CBMs. Streams of investigation that will facilitate the development and refinement of sequence-based prediction tools are suggested. © 2014. Source

Tosh S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48±33 mmol·min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r 2 =0.48, P<0.0001) than to the ratio of β-glucan to the available carbohydrate (r 2 =0.25, P<0.0001). For processed foods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27±3 mmol·min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

The North American genus Slaterocoris Wagner is revised and now contains 32 species. The new genus Josephinus is erected to accommodate three Mexican species, the type species, Slaterocoris reinhardi Carvalho and Schaffner, 1973, along with Scalponotatus albicornis Kelton, 1970, and Scalponotatus capitatus Kelton, 1970. Slaterocoris argenteoides, S. clavatus, S. elongatus, S. maculatus, and S. tanydexios from southern Mexico are described as new. The new combinations Slaterocoris punctatus (Distant, 1893) [Jornandes] and Slaterocoris subalbicans (Distant, 1893) [Jornandes] are proposed resulting in two subjective junior synonyms of Slaterocoris for the monotypic genera, Guerrerocoris Carvalho and China, 1959 and Amulacoris Carvalho and China, 1959, respectively. A review of the genus Scalponotatus Kelton, 1969, provides a new diagnosis and description of the genus and the type species, S. maturus Kelton, 1969, and a checklist of the nine species included in the newly conceived genus. Based on examination of the holotypes, the new combinations, Scalponotatus dissimulans (Distant, 1893) [Jornandes] and Jornandes sinaloensis (Carvalho and Costa, 1992) [Scalponotatus] are proposed. The following 23 new specific subjective synonymies are proposed (senior synonym first): Slaterocoris alpinus Kelton, 1968 = Slaterocoris schaffneri Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris ambrosiae (Knight, 1938) [Strongylocoris] = Slaterocoris arizonensis Knight, 1970, Slaterocoris bispinosus Knight, 1970, Slaterocoris ovatus Knight, 1970, and Slaterocoris severini Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris apache Kelton, 1968 = Slaterocoris bifidus Knight, 1970 and Slaterocoris burkei Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris breviatus (Knight, 1938) [Strongylocoris] = Slaterocoris minimus Knight, 1970 and Slaterocoris rarus Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris flavipes Kelton, 1968 = Slaterocoris sculleni Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris longipennis Knight, 1968 = Slaterocoris knowltoni Knight, 1970 and Slaterocoris utahensis Knight, 1968; Slaterocoris mohri (Knight, 1941) [Strongylocoris] = Slaterocoris fuscicornis Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris punctatus (Distant, 1893) = Slaterocoris grandis Kelton, 1970; Slaterocoris robustus (Uhler, 1895) [Stiphrosoma] = Slaterocoris nevadensis Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris rubrofemoratus Knight, 1968 = Slaterocoris nicholi Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris sheridani Knight, 1968 = Slaterocoris basicornis Knight, 1970, Slaterocoris custeri Knight, 1970, Slaterocoris dakotae Knight, 1970, Slaterocoris texanus Knight, 1970, and Slaterocoris woodgatei Knight, 1970; Slaterocoris stygicus (Say, 1832) [Capsus] = Slaterocoris getzendaneri Knight, 1970. The ambiguous lectotype designations (Kelton, 1968) for Stiphrosoma atrata Uhler, 1894, Stiphrosoma croceipes Uhler, 1893, and Stiphrosoma robusta Uhler, 1895, are stabilized. A neotype is designated for the lost primary type of Capsus stygicus Say, 1832. Revised diagnoses, redescriptions, color digital habitus photographs, line drawings of the legs for each species, and scanning micrographs of dorsal vestiture and sculpturation for most species are provided. Line drawings of the male genitalia of most species and the female genitalia of representative species-group taxa are included. Scanning micrographs are used to document diagnostic features of the genera. Maps and label records are provided to portray the distributions of all species. Where known, host-plant records are presented. Keys to Josephinus and Slaterocoris and their included species are offered to facilitate identification. A phylogenetic analysis is conducted for 32 ingroup and seven outgroup taxa resulting in the informal assignment of most of the species of Slaterocoris into six species groups. © 2011 American Museum of Natural History. Source

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