Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Ottawa, Canada

The Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, also referred to as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada , is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing agriculture production, farming income, research and development, inspection, and the regulation of animals and plants. It also has responsibilities regarding rural development. It is popularly called Ag-Canada.The current Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food is Gerry Ritz. The current Deputy Minister is Andrea Lyon. Wikipedia.

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Cui H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wang A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Virology | Year: 2016

The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology.

Abbott D.W.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | van Bueren A.L.,University of Groningen
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014

Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to the recent emergence of several new CBM families that display diverse binding profiles and novel functions, elucidating the function of these protein modules has become a much more challenging task. This review summarizes several approaches that have been reported for using primary structure to inform CBM specificity and streamlining their biophysical characterization. In addition we discuss general trends in binding site architecture and several newly identified functions for CBMs. Streams of investigation that will facilitate the development and refinement of sequence-based prediction tools are suggested. © 2014.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 8.53M | Year: 2014

The DROPSA consortium will create new knowledge and understanding of the damage and losses of fruit crops resulting from pests and pathogens, with a specific focus on the new and emerging threats due to Drosophila suzukii and quarantine pathogens Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas fragariae and X. arboricola. The project will deliver a cost effective approach that can be widely implemented by the EU fruit industry. The aims and objectives are to: Determine the pathways of introduction and spread of D. suzukii and pathogens into the EU and develop preventative strategies and recommendations against the introduction of other dangerous fruit pests and pathogens. Determine the biology, ecology and interaction of these pests and diseases in different regions of Europe. This will involve a comprehensive evaluation of the life cycles, host ranges, capacities to disperse, the identification of natural enemies, plant-pathogen interactions as well as the semiochemicals involved in the behaviour of D. suzukii. The biology will provide the platform to develop practical solutions for sustainable pest control. Develop innovative and effective control options using approved chemicals, semiochemicals, novel antimicrobial compounds and biological control agents as well as cultural practices, sterile insect techniques and new mode of action compounds. The most reliable and effective control options will be combined to optimise an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. Develop forecasting and decision support systems and risk mapping as a component of IPM. The economic viability of proposed strategies for fruit crop protection will be evaluated and used to support decision making in the implementation of IPM strategies to protect the EU fruit sector. To protect intellectual property (IP) and to undertake dissemination and exploitation actions to maximise the impact and up take of the recommended IPM by commercial fruit growers.

Sanfacon H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Viruses | Year: 2015

Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Saady N.M.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

This paper is a comprehensive review of H2 consumption during anaerobic mixed culture H2 dark fermentation with a focus on homoacetogenesis. Homoacetogenesis consumed from 11% to 43% of the H2 yield in single and repeated batch fermentations, respectively. However, its quantification and extent during continuous fermentation are still not well understood. Models incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic controls are required to provide insight into the dynamic of homoacetogenesis during H2 dark fermentation. Currently, no adequate method exists to eliminate homoacetogenesis because it does not depend on the culture's source, pre-treatment, substrate, type of reactor, or operation conditions. Controlling CO2 concentrations during dark fermentation needs further investigation as a potential strategy towards controlling homoacetogenesis. Incorporating radioactive labeling technique in H2 fermentation research could provide information on simultaneous production and consumption of H2 during dark fermentation. Genetic studies investigating blocking H2 consuming pathways and enhancing H2 evolving hydrogenases are suggested towards controlling homoacetogenesis during dark fermentation. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2015

A successful infection by a plant virus results from the complex molecular interplay between the host plant and the invading virus. Thus, dissecting the molecular network of virus-host interactions advances the understanding of the viral infection process and may assist in the development of novel antiviral strategies. In the past decade, molecular identification and functional characterization of host factors in the virus life cycle, particularly single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, have been a research focus in plant virology. As a result, a number of host factors have been identified. These host factors are implicated in all the major steps of the infection process. Some host factors are diverted for the viral genome translation, some are recruited to improvise the viral replicase complexes for genome multiplication, and others are components of transport complexes for cell-to-cell spread via plasmodesmata and systemic movement through the phloem. This review summarizes current knowledge about host factors and discusses future research directions. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Tosh S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48±33 mmol·min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r 2 =0.48, P<0.0001) than to the ratio of β-glucan to the available carbohydrate (r 2 =0.25, P<0.0001). For processed foods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27±3 mmol·min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Paenibacillus are important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that can serve as bio-reactors. Paenibacillus polymyxa promotes the growth of a variety of economically important crops. Our lab recently completed the genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa CR1. As of January 2014, four P. polymyxa genomes have been completely sequenced but no comparative genomic analyses have been reported.RESULTS: Here we report the comparative and genetic analyses of four sequenced P. polymyxa genomes, which revealed a significantly conserved core genome. Complex metabolic pathways and regulatory networks were highly conserved and allow P. polymyxa to rapidly respond to dynamic environmental cues. Genes responsible for phytohormone synthesis, phosphate solubilization, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, σ-factors, stress responses, transporters and biomass degradation were well conserved, indicating an intimate association with plant hosts and the rhizosphere niche. In addition, genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance and non-ribosomal peptide/polyketide synthesis are present in both the core and accessory genome of each strain. Comparative analyses also reveal variations in the accessory genome, including large plasmids present in strains M1 and SC2. Furthermore, a considerable number of strain-specific genes and genomic islands are irregularly distributed throughout each genome. Although a variety of plant-growth promoting traits are encoded by all strains, only P. polymyxa CR1 encodes the unique nitrogen fixation cluster found in other Paenibacillus sp.CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that genomic loci relevant to host interaction and ecological fitness are highly conserved within the P. polymyxa genomes analysed, despite variations in the accessory genome. This work suggets that plant-growth promotion by P. polymyxa is mediated largely through phytohormone production, increased nutrient availability and bio-control mechanisms. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the genome architecture of this species, thus facilitating future genetic engineering and applications in agriculture, industry and medicine. Furthermore, this study highlights the current gap in our understanding of complex plant biomass metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria.

Beckie H.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Date: 2016-09-21

The subject invention provides low fiber, yellow-seeded canola, and related canola meal and animal feed. Oil produced from this seed has at least 68% oleic acid and no more than 3% linolenic acid, relative to the total fatty acids in the oil. Specific canola lines exhibiting these characteristics are also provided. Canola seed offering the combined advantages of excellent oil together with high-quality meal has not heretofore been provided.

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