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Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

Wasaya A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Tahir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Manaf A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmed M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Continuous cultivation of fields with same implement (cultivator) creates a hard pan in the subsoil which adversely affects crop productivity. In addition to tillage, nitrogen management is a key factor for better crop growth and yield. Impact of different tillage systems and nitrogen management on yield attributes and grain yield of hybrid maize was evaluated by conducting experiments at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2008 and 2009. The experiment comprised of three tillage systems viz. conventional tillage, tillage with mould board plough followed by 2-cultivations (with cultivator), tillage with chisel plough followed by 2-cultivations (with cultivator) and three nitrogen levels (100, 150 and 200 kg ha -1). Different tillage systems and nitrogen levels significantly influenced the maize yield and yield components. Chisel ploughed plots resulted to heavier cobs, higher 1000-grain weight and grain yield in comparison with other tillage systems. Maize yield with chisel tilled plots was 18 and 9% higher than mould board ploughed and conventionally tilled plots, respectively. Generally, differences between different nitrogen application rates were more pronounced; increasing nitrogen rate resulted in increased yield and yield components of maize. Significantly, highest grains weight per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield was recorded with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application. Maize yield with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application was 17 and 8.50% higher than 100 and 150 kg ha -1 nitrogen application, respectively. Therefore, it may be concluded that maize hybrids should be grown with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application by preparing the field with chisel plough followed by cultivator. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Nosheen F.,The University of Faisalabad | Ali T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to analyze the gender specific sources of information regarding home and farm practices in Potohar Region. A cross sectional survey research design was used for the study and multistage random sampling process was used. The collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found that for females, television followed by friends, relatives, radio and local farmers were their most frequently used sources of information. For males, the most frequent sources of information were local farmers and relatives followed by friends, television and radio. Female respondents trust more on the information provided by television followed by friends, relatives and radio. On the other hand, male order of trust on the information falls in decreasing order as local farmers followed by relatives, friends, television and radio. The information sources like inputs/output dealers, books/booklets and extension agent were considered the least trust worthy by both the male and female respondents. It is, therefore, suggested that information ministry to educate their spectators on practicing gender equality and mutual consultation on household, community and livelihood strategies related issues through TV talks, dramas, serials and other shows at national and international channels. Print media of the country are also further suggested to present the case of gender equality in a more strong and convincing manner through their programs and articles.

Nosheen F.,The University of Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Gender mainstreaming of women is more than a political process that would enable women to participate equally with men in all spheres of life and at all levels of decision making so that their different needs could be equally addressed. In Pakistan, it was, therefore, imperative to conduct a study to find out the problems being faced in gander mainstreaming and their possible solution in the rain fed area of Chakwal district. Total 400 respondents (200 husbands and 200 wives) were selected in District Chakwal taken as universe through simple random sampling technique and adopting multi stage random sampling approach. Twenty households were randomly selected from each selected village for formal interview purposes. The married couple from each household was interviewed during the formal survey. The data acquired from the field were transferred in the Microsoft Excel and SPSS in order to summarize the gathered data and chi squared distribution was applied with single degree of freedom. Turning to gender equality problems faced in the society, the most reported problem reported by wives was gender specific work (91.5 %), male dominant society (89.5 %) and lack of job opportunities (88.5 %) for the females in the area. The husbands reported reasons slightly differently as lesser opportunities for women (86 %), cultural values (87 %), less recognition of women work (86 %) and male dominance in the society (85.5 %). The low intensity problems reported by male and female respondents were giving more weight to cultural values and low level of literacy among women. It is, therefore, suggested that female children should be encouraged to acquire higher education, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area should promote gender equality and the financial institutions should be emphasized to extend small loans to women folk to bring them in gender main streamline in agricultural decision and extension work.

Ishaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bukhsh A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Setaria sphacelata is an aggressive perennial grass of arid tropical habitats around the globe. It prefers very warm climate and is restricted to these tropical environments. It was studied for its growth and herbage yield during early summer in 2003. Grass nursery of this plant was raised through its stubbles on a site having sandy loam to loam soil with a pH of 7.85 in plot size 1m x 3m. The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design with four replications. Four clipping stages i.e. CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4 (clipped after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively) were studied. Data on morphological characters and herbage yield were recorded with delayed clipping stages (plant maturity), plant height, tiller density and basal circumference of the grass increased (P<0.05) while its leaf to stem ratio showed a decline. Herbage yield (fresh biomass, dry matter yield and organic matter yield) of the grass increased (P<0.05) as grass reached maturity. At later stage of plant maturity, the grass had lower vegetative parts than at the early stages of plant maturity. This study concluded that in order to get optimum biomass and sustained grass vigor; three months clipping stage should be recommended on this grass species.

Bukhsh M.A.A.H.A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Maize is a particular cereal crop which is more affected by variations in plant density than other members of the grass family, due to its low tillering ability, its monoecious floral organization and the presence of a brief flowering period. Different maize cultivars respond differently to K application under varying plant densities, due to different root/shoot ratio, growth rate, crowding stress tolerance, intra-specific competition between plants, K uptake and utilization. Maize cultivars have the ability to withstand high plant density due to more partitioning of assilimilates to shoot as compare to root, resulting in reduction of root/shoot ratio. K application reduces the percent of senescent stalks, lodging and increased crushing strength and rind thickness. There is general consensus that the soils of Pakistan have large capacity to provide K to crop under ordinary conditions, but the increase in the intensity of cropping, excessive use of the tube well water, introduction of the high yielding cultivars requiring high K, increasing use of N and P, could hasten the removal of K from the soils and imbalance the uptake of K in relation to other nutrients. Genotypic and crop species differences exist in response to soil and fertilizer K and non-yield traits such as stalk strength or product quality must be taken into account in K management decisions. K application not only increases grain yield, but also improves quality parameters. K application improves utilization of water, tolerance to drought through stomatal conductance, acceleration in photosynthesis process, water up take through roots. Its application improves leaf area, dry matter accumulation and other allometric parameters. K in combination with N has synergistic influence in uptake, translocation and utilization of nutrients for assimilation in growth and development of final grain yield and its contributing attributes. Normally K deficiency symptoms are usually not conspicuous although grain yield is abruptly decreased (called hidden hunger), but severe deficiency do express symptoms. It is therefore suggested that luxuriant application of K is inevitable for getting successful and maximum production from maize hybrids. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

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