Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan
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Ahmad M.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Malik A.U.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

High plant density brings bareness in plants. Potassium (K) application is one of the solutions of this plant bareness. To explore profit of different maize hybrids under varying plant density levels, to minimize plant bareness by application of K, an experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement, randomizing maize hybrids in main plots (H1= Pioneer-3012, H2= Pioneer-3062, H3= Pioneer - 30D55) and plant density levels (P1 = 15 cm × 70 cm (95238 plants ha-1), P2 = 25 cm × 70 cm (57142 plants ha-1), and P3 = 35 cm × 70 cm (40816 plants ha-1) with K application (K0=0, K1=100, K2=150, K3=200 and K4=250 Kg ha-1) in subplots with four replications. It was observed that among all maize hybrids, Pioneer-30D55 produced maximum net income (Rs.92877.88 ha-1) at plant density level of 95238 plants ha-1 with the highest cost benefit ratio (2.78). Similarly, by K application grain production increased with the increase in K application. Pioneer-30D55 produced maximum grain yield (6.41 t ha-1) when K was applied @ 200 Kg ha-1 but when it was calculated economically it was found non profitable. The highest cost benefit ratio (2.71) was noted in control where no potassium was applied. It is therefore suggested that among all three maize hybrids, Pioneer-30D55 should be preferably grown at high plant density (95238 plants ha-1) with zero K application to achieve maximum profit. The reason was that high input cost of K did not respond grain yield in the same reciprocal fashion as desired.

Bukhsh M.A.A.H.A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Kaleem S.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Wasaya A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area of PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi to evaluate the quality parameters of spring planted sunflower hybrids as influenced by varying potassium application doses during two consecutive years i.e. 2008 and 2009. Experiment was quadruplicated using randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement keeping different levels of nutritional area in main plots and sunflower hybrids in subplots. Protein and achene oil contents were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique, where as fatty acid composition was determined by GC-9A Fatty Acid Analyzer. Different levels of nutritional area significantly increased protein content and palmitic acid concentration in achene but reduced oil content when levels of nutritional area vary from 60 × 20 cm2 to 60 × 60 cm2 (2 plants/hill). However, the concentration of oleic, linoleic and linolenic remained unaffected by varying levels of nutritional area. Hybrid Hysun-33 produced significantly higher protein content (18.89%) in achene as compared to S-278. Conversely, hybrid S-278 accumulated significantly higher oil content (43.48%) as compared to hybrid Hysun-33. No proper pattern was noticed regarding stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid accumulation in achenes. It is concluded that sunflower hybrids exhibited differential genotypic response to different levels of nutritional area by increasing oil contents, palmitic acid concentration and reducing protein contents in achenes without affecting stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid concentration. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.

Saleem M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bukhsh A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Sunflower has been successfully cultivated over a widely scattered geographical area in the world and also emerged as a crop, which has ability to adopt in a variety of environmental conditions. Sunflower is high yielding oilseed crop and has the potential to bridge up the gap existing between consumption and domestic production of edible oil. Water is essential at every stage of plant growth and development. Water deficit reduces crop yield regardless of the growth stage at which it occurs in field crops including sunflower. The productivity and spatial distribution of agronomic and horticultural crop plants of commercial importance are severely restricted by a variety of environmental factors. Among these factors, drought and salt play very significant role in reducing agricultural production. Water deficit effect is much pronounced at the vegetative and flowering stage. In sunflower water shortage at the flowering stage reduced yield by 29 %. Dwarf cultivars of sunflower have higher water potential i.e. least water stress as compared to intermediate and long stature cultivars. This is due to difference in canopy architecture and root penetration depth among different stature sunflower cultivars. Tall stature cultivars produced more leaf area, aerial biomass and deeper root system so they transpired more water. Major effect of drought in plant is reduction in photosynthesis, which is due to decrease in leaf expansion, impaired photosynthetic machinery, leaf senescence and finally reduction in assimilates production and partitioning. Sunflower exhibits a large varietal difference for osmotic adjustment in response to water shortage. Drought tolerance has been observed in all plant species, but its extent varies from species to species. One way to ensure future food needs of the increasing world populations should involve better use of water by the development of crop varieties those require lesser amounts of water and more tolerant to water shortage. Water deficit in root zone causes an increase in rate of root respiration which leads to an imbalance in the utilization of carbon resources, decrease in production of adenosine triple phosphate (ATP) and an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Genotypic variation for osmotic adjustment has also been reported in sunflower. The dwarf sunflower cultivars have initiated osmotic adjustment earlier than intermediate and large stature cultivars which indicated better osmotic response of dwarf cultivars. The delay in osmotic adjustment in intermediate and tall stature sunflower genotypes is due to faster root penetration and more water extraction from deeper layer of soil. So, tall stature sunflower cultivars face water stress later as compared to short stature. Three growth stages of sunflower as heading, flowering and milking are sensitive to water shortage. In limited irrigation application study, water applied at different growth stages of sunflower significantly decreased seed yield, particularly during three growth periods: heading, flowering and milking. The role of abscisic acid (ABA) as plant stress hormone is well established. Under drought condition, ABA is synthesized in plant tissue and sent to the guard cell as a stress signal. Here ABA causes stomatal closure, which improves the water relations of plant. ABA entering a leaf can be metabolized rapidly. In response of water deficit, ABA begins to increase markedly in plant leaf tissues and to a lesser extent, in other tissues including roots. This leads to stomatal closure and decreased transpiration. It also inhibits shoot growth and root growth appears to be promoted which increased the water supply. It helps in promoting drought tolerance, both from the use of exogenous application to intact plants and from the measurement of the endogenous ABA concentration. In response to exogenous application of ABA in drought tolerant line of sunflower dehydrin protein accumulated in vegetative tissue. Dehydrin protects cytosolic structures from the deleterious effects of cellular dehydration. ABA plays a critical role in regulating plant water status through guard cells and growth as well as by induction of genes that encode enzymes and other proteins which create cellular dehydration tolerance. In plants stomata response to soil drying is mediated by ABA, originating from roots and transported to the shoot via the transpiration stream. ABA under drought is produced in dehydrated roots, transported to the xylem and regulates stomatal opening and leaf growth in the shoots. Stomata respond to the concentration of ABA in the guard cell apoplast. Screening of sunflower cultivars under drought applied at different crop growth stages and exogenous application of ABA will defiantly help in saving water for successful crop production.

Ishaq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bukhsh A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Setaria sphacelata is an aggressive perennial grass of arid tropical habitats around the globe. It prefers very warm climate and is restricted to these tropical environments. It was studied for its growth and herbage yield during early summer in 2003. Grass nursery of this plant was raised through its stubbles on a site having sandy loam to loam soil with a pH of 7.85 in plot size 1m x 3m. The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design with four replications. Four clipping stages i.e. CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4 (clipped after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively) were studied. Data on morphological characters and herbage yield were recorded with delayed clipping stages (plant maturity), plant height, tiller density and basal circumference of the grass increased (P<0.05) while its leaf to stem ratio showed a decline. Herbage yield (fresh biomass, dry matter yield and organic matter yield) of the grass increased (P<0.05) as grass reached maturity. At later stage of plant maturity, the grass had lower vegetative parts than at the early stages of plant maturity. This study concluded that in order to get optimum biomass and sustained grass vigor; three months clipping stage should be recommended on this grass species.

Bakhsh M.A.A.H.A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

A field experiment to investigate the effect of seeding rates and different levels of nitrogen on yield and yield components of wheat was conducted at Research Area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan. An approved cultivar Fareed-2006 was sown at seeding rates of 125, 150 and 175 kg/ha with five nitrogen levels of 0, 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg N/ha. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement keeping seed rate in main plots and nitrogen levels in sub plots having three replications while, net plot size was 3 × 7 m2. Yield components such as plant height (cm), spike length (cm), number of spikelets/spike, number of grain/spike, 1000-grain weight (g), biological yield (kg/ha), grain yield (kg/ha) and harvest index were maximum at seeding rate of 150 kg/ha and minimum at seeding rate of 125kg/ha while number of tillers were maximum at seeding rate of 175 kg/ha and minimum at seeding rate of 125kg/ha. Similarly plant height, number of tillers m-2, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, number of grain/spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were highest at nitrogen at 125 kg/ha and lowest at zero level of nitrogen. The interaction between seeding rates and nitrogen levels was found non significant for plant height, number of tillers m-2 spike length, number of spikelets/spike and 1000 grain weight while a significant interaction was noted for number of grain/ spike, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index and were maximum at seeding rate of 150 kg/ha with nitrogen level of 125 kg/ha. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

Bukhsh M.A.A.H.A.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Maize is a particular cereal crop which is more affected by variations in plant density than other members of the grass family, due to its low tillering ability, its monoecious floral organization and the presence of a brief flowering period. Different maize cultivars respond differently to K application under varying plant densities, due to different root/shoot ratio, growth rate, crowding stress tolerance, intra-specific competition between plants, K uptake and utilization. Maize cultivars have the ability to withstand high plant density due to more partitioning of assilimilates to shoot as compare to root, resulting in reduction of root/shoot ratio. K application reduces the percent of senescent stalks, lodging and increased crushing strength and rind thickness. There is general consensus that the soils of Pakistan have large capacity to provide K to crop under ordinary conditions, but the increase in the intensity of cropping, excessive use of the tube well water, introduction of the high yielding cultivars requiring high K, increasing use of N and P, could hasten the removal of K from the soils and imbalance the uptake of K in relation to other nutrients. Genotypic and crop species differences exist in response to soil and fertilizer K and non-yield traits such as stalk strength or product quality must be taken into account in K management decisions. K application not only increases grain yield, but also improves quality parameters. K application improves utilization of water, tolerance to drought through stomatal conductance, acceleration in photosynthesis process, water up take through roots. Its application improves leaf area, dry matter accumulation and other allometric parameters. K in combination with N has synergistic influence in uptake, translocation and utilization of nutrients for assimilation in growth and development of final grain yield and its contributing attributes. Normally K deficiency symptoms are usually not conspicuous although grain yield is abruptly decreased (called hidden hunger), but severe deficiency do express symptoms. It is therefore suggested that luxuriant application of K is inevitable for getting successful and maximum production from maize hybrids. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

Wasaya A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Tahir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Manaf A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ahmed M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Continuous cultivation of fields with same implement (cultivator) creates a hard pan in the subsoil which adversely affects crop productivity. In addition to tillage, nitrogen management is a key factor for better crop growth and yield. Impact of different tillage systems and nitrogen management on yield attributes and grain yield of hybrid maize was evaluated by conducting experiments at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2008 and 2009. The experiment comprised of three tillage systems viz. conventional tillage, tillage with mould board plough followed by 2-cultivations (with cultivator), tillage with chisel plough followed by 2-cultivations (with cultivator) and three nitrogen levels (100, 150 and 200 kg ha -1). Different tillage systems and nitrogen levels significantly influenced the maize yield and yield components. Chisel ploughed plots resulted to heavier cobs, higher 1000-grain weight and grain yield in comparison with other tillage systems. Maize yield with chisel tilled plots was 18 and 9% higher than mould board ploughed and conventionally tilled plots, respectively. Generally, differences between different nitrogen application rates were more pronounced; increasing nitrogen rate resulted in increased yield and yield components of maize. Significantly, highest grains weight per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield was recorded with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application. Maize yield with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application was 17 and 8.50% higher than 100 and 150 kg ha -1 nitrogen application, respectively. Therefore, it may be concluded that maize hybrids should be grown with 200 kg ha -1 nitrogen application by preparing the field with chisel plough followed by cultivator. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Nosheen F.,The University of Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex | Ishaque M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Gender mainstreaming of women is more than a political process that would enable women to participate equally with men in all spheres of life and at all levels of decision making so that their different needs could be equally addressed. In Pakistan, it was, therefore, imperative to conduct a study to find out the problems being faced in gander mainstreaming and their possible solution in the rain fed area of Chakwal district. Total 400 respondents (200 husbands and 200 wives) were selected in District Chakwal taken as universe through simple random sampling technique and adopting multi stage random sampling approach. Twenty households were randomly selected from each selected village for formal interview purposes. The married couple from each household was interviewed during the formal survey. The data acquired from the field were transferred in the Microsoft Excel and SPSS in order to summarize the gathered data and chi squared distribution was applied with single degree of freedom. Turning to gender equality problems faced in the society, the most reported problem reported by wives was gender specific work (91.5 %), male dominant society (89.5 %) and lack of job opportunities (88.5 %) for the females in the area. The husbands reported reasons slightly differently as lesser opportunities for women (86 %), cultural values (87 %), less recognition of women work (86 %) and male dominance in the society (85.5 %). The low intensity problems reported by male and female respondents were giving more weight to cultural values and low level of literacy among women. It is, therefore, suggested that female children should be encouraged to acquire higher education, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area should promote gender equality and the financial institutions should be emphasized to extend small loans to women folk to bring them in gender main streamline in agricultural decision and extension work.

Nosheen F.,The University of Faisalabad | Ali T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad M.,Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to analyze the gender specific sources of information regarding home and farm practices in Potohar Region. A cross sectional survey research design was used for the study and multistage random sampling process was used. The collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found that for females, television followed by friends, relatives, radio and local farmers were their most frequently used sources of information. For males, the most frequent sources of information were local farmers and relatives followed by friends, television and radio. Female respondents trust more on the information provided by television followed by friends, relatives and radio. On the other hand, male order of trust on the information falls in decreasing order as local farmers followed by relatives, friends, television and radio. The information sources like inputs/output dealers, books/booklets and extension agent were considered the least trust worthy by both the male and female respondents. It is, therefore, suggested that information ministry to educate their spectators on practicing gender equality and mutual consultation on household, community and livelihood strategies related issues through TV talks, dramas, serials and other shows at national and international channels. Print media of the country are also further suggested to present the case of gender equality in a more strong and convincing manner through their programs and articles.

Ali A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Basra S.M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hussain S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Iqbal J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. Salts taken up by the plants influence the plant growth by inducing adverse effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, including turgor, photosynthesis and enzymatic activities. Mechanisms responsible for reduction in plant growth under salt stress are: (1) Osmotic stress, (2) Specific ion toxicity, (3) Nutritional imbalance and (4) Oxidative stress. Different approaches such as introduction of new genes into genotypes responsible for salt tolerance, screening of large international collections and conduct of field trials on selected genotypes, conventional and non-conventional breeding methods and adequate regulation of mineral nutrients have been employed to enhance salinity tolerance in plants. Saline agriculture and exogenous application of mineral elements including Si has been professed as cost effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress in cereal crops like wheat. Si is categorized as a beneficial element in plant biology. It is unquestionably an important requirement for the normal growth of many plants and must be called as "Quasi essential". Si amendment also plays a pivotal role to enhance chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and rigidity of plants under stressful conditions. There are different mechanisms by which Si mediates salinity tolerance in plants. It maintains the plant water status under saline conditions. It reduces uptake of Na+ by improving K+: Na+ and also alleviates the toxicity of other heavy metals. It application helps to improve the defensive system of the plants by producing anti-oxidants which in turn detoxify reactive oxygen species. Morphological and physiological improvements in plants were observed due to Si deposition within plant body under salt stress conditions. Silicon improves growth and dry matter production under salt stress conditions. Its application also enhances the crop performance against biotic stress. It is, therefore, suggested that supplemental application of Si must be included in salt stress alleviation management techniques. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

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