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Matsuura T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Mizuno A.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Tsukamoto T.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | Shimizu Y.,Yokohama Plant Protection Station | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951T=LMG 25843T=NCPPB 4475T) is proposed. © 2012 IUMS Printed in Great Britain.

Messiga A.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Messiga A.J.,Laval University | Ziadi N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Morel C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

The benefits of no till (NT) management in the short to medium terms need to be examined over decades of continuous cropping. Our objectives were to (i) assess the long term effects of tillage practices (no-till (NT) and mouldboard plough [MP]) and biennial P×N fertilizer rates applied to the maize phase of a two-year maize-soybean rotation on grain yield, Mehlich-3 P (PM3), and Olsen P (POl), and (ii) determine whether NT practice affects the relationships between PM3, POl and P budgets. The study site was established in 1992 on a clay loam soil of the St-Blaise series (Dark Grey Gleysol). The experimental design is a split plot with NT and MP assigned to main plots and nine combinations of 3 P (0, 17.5, and 35kg Pha-1) and 3N (0, 80, and 160kg Nha-1) additions assigned to subplots. Maize and soybean grain yield response to P additions was obtained only twice between 1992 and 2010. On average, grain yields were reduced by 10-25% in NT compared to MP treatments in 11 years. The dynamics over years of PM3 and POl (0-15cm) in unfertilized P treatment was similar in NT and MP. In contrast, P fertilized NT maintained greater PM3 and POl than MP. This difference in soil tests P was due to greater P accumulation in the 0-5cm and 5-10cm soil layers of NT. Under MP, soil tests P and P budgets over the P treatments were linearly related and for this specific MP treatment, we calculated that a P budget of ±100kg Pha-1 would change PM3 by 12kgha-1 and POl by 7kgha-1. Under NT, a cubic model fitted closely to the experimental data due principally to a more than proportional change in soil tests P relative to P budgets in fertilized P treatments. We conclude that additions of P fertilizer in NT systems changes the dynamics of P in the rooting zone, suggesting the importance of approaches to monitor P dynamics specifically tailored for NT systems that integrates the variability caused by the absence of mixing the fertilizer, residues, and soil. © 2012 .

Wong S.S.Y.,University of Hong Kong | Teng J.L.L.,University of Hong Kong | Poon R.W.S.,University of Hong Kong | Choi G.K.Y.,University of Hong Kong | And 4 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

There are no comprehensive studies on the performance of commonly used point-of-care diagnostic enzyme immunoassay for common arthropod-borne canine pathogens. A comparative evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for these infections with a comprehensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test panel was performed on 100 pet dogs and 100 stray dogs without obvious clinical symptoms. Of the 162 positive test results from both immunochromatographic test and PCR, there was 85.2% concordance. The 24 discordant results between serology and PCR occurred in tests involving Ehrlichia canis (14) and Anaplasma platys (10), which may be related to the time of infection. No positive cases of borreliosis or rickettsiosis were detected. One important limitation of the immunochromatographic test was its lack of testing for babesiosis and hepatozoonosis. The former is the most prevalent arthropod-borne canine infection in our cohort (41%). Coinfections were found in 19% stray dogs and 6% of pet dogs with both tests (p<0.01). Seventeen and 8 samples from stray and pet dogs, respectively, were initially positive in the PCR test for Ehrlichia. However, on sequencing of the PCR amplicon, 10 from stray and 2 from pet dogs were found to be Wolbachia sequences instead, with 100% nucleotide identity to the 16S rRNA sequence of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis. The presence of Wolbachia DNAemia (6%) correlated well with the molecular test and immunochromatographic antigen test for D. immitis. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Izumi B.T.,Portland State University | Alaimo K.,Michigan State University | Hamm M.W.,Agriculture
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2010

Objective: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children's diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. Design: Semistructured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. Setting: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States. Participants: Seven school food service professionals, 7 farmers, and 4 food distributors recruited from 7 farm-to-school programs. Phenomenon of Interest: Interviews probed why farmers, school food service professionals, and food distributors participate in farm-to-school programs and how they characterize the opportunities and challenges to local school food procurement. Analysis: Data were analyzed using thematic coding and data displays. Results: School food service professionals described 3 motivators for buying locally grown food for their cafeterias: (1) "The students like it," (2) "The price is right," and (3) "We're helping our local farmer." Students' preference for locally grown food was related to food quality, influence of school staff, and relationships with farmers. Buying food directly from farmers and wholesalers was associated with lower prices and flexible specifications, and the "local feel.". Conclusions and Implications: Understanding school food service professionals' motivations for buying locally grown food is critical to the sustainability of farm-to-school programs. © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education.

Satomi M.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Science | Mori-Koyanagi M.,Ishikawa Prefectural Fisheries Research Center | Shozen K.,Agriculture | Furushita M.,National Fisheries University | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2012

In order to analyze the genes related to histamine production in halophilic lactic acid bacteria, 16 strains of histamine-producing bacteria were isolated from three fermented seafoods produced in the Hokuriku region of Japan. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified all of the strains as those of Tetragenococcus muriaticus. Pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA) was determined from all strains using the PCR method with an hdcA-specific detection primer set. Genetic analyses (Southern blot and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) of hdcA and genes related to histamine production (the hdc cluster) confirmed that all of the strains harbored 21-23 kbp plasmids encoding a single copy of hdcA. The four representative strains were selected based on isolation source and genetic analysis, and subsequently full sequences of plasmids harbored in these strains were determined. hdc cluster sequences from the plasmids showed very high similarity (>99 %) to known hdc clusters of T. halophilus, Lactobacillus hilgardii 0006, and other lactic acid bacteria. The structures of the plasmids, the replication region, the hdc cluster, and the plasmid maintenance system were conserved between the plasmids present in new isolates and the T. halophilus strains. These results indicate that plasmids encoding hdcA are widely distributed among T. halophilus and T. muriaticus and function in both species. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.

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