The Agricultural University of Kraków , located in Kraków, Poland, became an independent university by decree of the Council of Ministers as of 28 September 1972. Formerly, it was known as the Higher College of Agriculture of the Jagiellonian University, as well as other names, since its establishment in 1890. Wikipedia.
Korus A.,Agricultural University of Krakow
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011
The levels of vitamin C, polyphenol constituents and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC) were analyzed in raw kale leaves, blanched leaves and dried leaves obtained using air and freeze-drying methods. 100 g of raw kale leaves contained 683 mg vitamin C and 2236 mg polyphenols (identified using the HPLC method); the level of antioxidative activity was 71 μM Trolox/1 g dry matter. Compared with the raw material, blanching before drying brought about significant decreases of 15% in vitamin C, 32% in polyphenols and13% in TEAC. After 12-month storage, air-dried material retained 30-37% polyphenols; 43-57% vitamin C; and 41-50% of the initial TEAC level; the corresponding values for freeze-dried material were 40-47%; 50-65% and 54-66% depending on the type of sample. Freeze-dried kale leaves contained higher levels of antioxidants than air-dried material: polyphenols, vitamin C and TEAC were respectively 36%, 15%and 33% higher. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Tarko T.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2013
Phenolic compounds are a group of key plant metabolites found abundantly in fruit and vegetables. Because of their antioxidant properties, they play a significant role in preventing various degenerative illnesses, tumours or cardiovascular disease. In nature, they are present in foods mainly as esters, glycosides and polymers which need to undergo enzymatic hydrolysis in the digestive tract or by the gut microflora before becoming absorbed. The biological properties of these phenolic compounds undergoing this degradation, are thus governed by their absorption as well as metabolism. Many methods are used to assess the rates and the degrees to which these substances are digested and absorbed, both in vivo and in vitro ones, where the former are the most reliable, although they suffer from various limitations. For this reason, many in vitro models have now arisen to simulate the function of human digestion in the attempt to faithfully re-create real-life conditions. Mechanisms of polyphenols absorption have been principally studied by intestinal epithelial cell models, in particular, those using the Caco-2 cell line.
Duda-Chodak A.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012
The intestinal microbiota (IM) is responsible for metabolism of many compounds provided in the diet, such as polyphenols, increasing their bioavailability. However, there are remarkably few studies investigating the influence of polyphenols on the composition and activity of the gut microbial community. This study evaluated the influence of the polyphenols naringenin (N), naringin (NR), hesperetin (H), hesperidin (HR), quercetin (Q), rutin (QR), and catechin (CAT) on the growth of human IM representatives (Bacteroides galacturonicus, Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus caccae, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Escherichia coli). Polyphenols were added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 20, 100 or 250 μg/ml (for Q concentrations were 4, 20 or 50 μg/ml) and their impact on the IM was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24-h culture. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for polyphenols that inhibited bacteria was estimated. CAT had no impact on the tested IM. Q had the strongest impact on R. gauvreauii, B. galacturonicus and Lactobacillus sp. (MIC 20-50 μg/ml) growth, whilst its rutinoside had no impact. NR and HR had no impact, but their aglycones N and H inhibited growth of almost all analyzed bacteria (MIC ≥250 μg/ml). We conclude that flavonoid aglycones, but not their glycosides, may inhibit growth of some intestinal bacteria. This means that polyphenols probably can modulate the IM and indirectly interfere with their own bioavailability.
Kowalski S.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
The paper presents the results of microwave irradiation and conventional heating of honey. These two kinds of thermal treatment result in the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), and changes in the antioxidant potential of honeys, which were studied as well. Four types of honey (honeydew, lime, acacia, buckwheat) were analyzed. Honey samples were subjected to conventional heating in a water bath (WB) at 90 °C up to 60 min or to the action of a microwave field (MW) with constant power of 1.26 W/g of the sample up to 6 min. Changes in the antioxidant capacity of honeys were measured as a percentage of free radical (ABTṠ+ and DPPḢ) scavenging ability. Changes in the total polyphenols content (TPC) (equivalents of gallic acid mg/100 g of honey) were also determined. Formation of HMF in honey treated with a microwave field was faster in comparison with the conventional process. Changes in the antioxidant properties of honey subjected to thermal or microwave processing might have been botanical origin dependent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Socha J.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012
The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of wetland drainage on the productivity of Scots pine stands in Poland. Data were obtained from the forested area of the Niepolomice Forest District, which was drained in 1964-1968. To describe the long-term changes in site productivity, a local site index model was developed. The effect of drainage depended primarily on the age of the stand at the time of drainage. A positive growth response (i.e., an increase in height) was observed in stands that were younger than 45-50years at the time of drainage, with younger stands showing stronger responses. Drainage caused an increase in the site productivity of young stands that can be expressed as a change of 5.4m in site index. For fully stocked stands, the average effect of drainage expressed as the predicted increase in total wood production at age 100years was estimated to be approximately 200m 3ha -1 (25%) in those stands planted after drainage. The predicted increase in the total volume of production at total stand age 100years for stands that were 30years old at the time of drainage was estimated to be approximately 125m 3ha -1 (15%). For stands that were 40years old at the time of drainage, the predicted increase in volume production was approximately 50m 3ha -1 (6%). Stands older than 50years at the time of drainage were assumed to be unaffected. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Sechman A.,Agricultural University of Krakow
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2013
In all vertebrates, including birds, the normal development of the ovary and ovarian follicles is under the regulatory influence of hormones produced by the reproductive axis. In recent years, it has become clear that in birds an adequate level of thyroid hormones (THs), i.e. thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in blood circulation is of primary importance for normal female reproductive functions. In avian species, characterized by seasonal reproduction, THs are involved in the photoperiodic regulation of reproduction acting at the mediobasal hypothalamus. In domestic fowl, where the seasonality of reproduction has been eliminated, the role of THs in ovarian function is not fully elucidated. Recent studies have revealed that ovarian follicles of the laying hen express mRNAs of TH nuclear receptors (TRα and TRβ0) as well as integrin (αVβ3) plasma membrane receptors, indicating genomic and nongenomic action of THs in the chicken ovary. In vivo experiments carried out on laying hens have showed that the bolus injection of T3 decreases levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) in blood, and a hyperthyroid state evoked by administration of T3 for few days diminishes LH, E2 and progesterone (P4) levels, reduces the weight of the ovary, induces atresia of preovulatory follicles and eventually causes stoppage of egg laying. In vitro studies have demonstrated that T3 decreases E2 secretion from white nonhierarchical follicles and the theca layer of yellow preovulatory follicles, while on the other hand, it elevates P4 production from the granulosa layer of these follicles. These effects have been associated with steroidogenic enzyme expression and cyclic AMP synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the role of THs in regulation of steroidogenesis in chicken ovarian follicles. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Glab T.,Agricultural University of Krakow
International Agrophysics | Year: 2013
The field experiment was carried out on a smooth-stalked meadow-grass to analyse the effect of tractor traffic on herbage production and root morphology. The multiple passes of tractor changed physical properties of soil. Increase in bulk density and penetration resistance of soil under smooth-stalked meadow-grass was recorded up to the depth of 30 cm. The tractor traffic resulted in changes in smooth-stalked meadow-grass yields. During the second and the third harvest it was found that wheel traffic decreased plant yields. For the first harvest the opposite effect in herbage production was noticed. The tractor traffic significantly changed the root morphometric properties in the upper, 0-5 cm, soil layer. Intensive tractor traffic (four and six passes) significantly increased the root length in diameter range of 0.1-0.5 mm. There were no differences in both mean root diameter and specific root length what indicated that traffic treatment applied did not change the root diameter. The results indicate that smooth-stalked meadow-grass could be recommended for compacted soils when intensive traffic is present. © 2013 Institute of Agrophysics.
Glab T.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2014
During the 20th century grassland production systems were intensified with higher rates of nitrogen usage and increasing heavy vehicular activity. This tendency is reflected in the higher soil degradation risk. However, in recent years European agri-environmental policies have promoted low-input grassland management practices. These changes in fertilization intensity may interact with the effects of machine traffic in affecting soil physical properties. The objective of this study, was to investigate the influence of soil compaction caused by tractor traffic and N fertilization levels on a soil pore system under a clover/grass mixture during the period from 2010 to 2012. This experiment was established in a split-plot design with fertilization as a main plot and soil compaction as a subplot. The N fertilizer treatments used were: untreated control (N0), 80kg Nha-1 (N80) and 160kg Nha-1 (N160). Four compaction treatments were applied using the following number of tractor passes: untreated control (P0), two passes (P2), four passes (P4) and six passes (P6). Undisturbed soil samples were collected in 2010-2012 in order to determine the water retention parameters and morphometric characterization of soil pores. The soil water characteristic curve was determined using pressure plates. The soil macropore system was also characterized using image analysis on the sections of soil samples hardened with polyester resin. The mineral fertilization did not significantly affect any physical parameters of soil at the trial. The intensive wheeling resulted in a higher value of bulk density and penetration resistance and lower values of total porosity. The soil compaction has distinctly influenced the soil water retention characteristics in the high matric potential range, which corresponds mainly with large pores (transmission pores and fissures) and storage pores. The result of changes in soil porosity was to increase the plant available water capacity. On the other hand, the relative field capacity indicated that in compacted soil under grassland plants, the biological activity was limited by insufficient soil aeration. This conclusion is in agreement with the results in plant production, which showed decrease in root and above ground biomass as the result of compaction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Pietrzykowski M.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014
In Central Europe, a large portion of post-mining sites were afforested with Scots pine, which is characterized by good adaptability and a tolerance for poor habitat at the beginning of forest ecosystem development. Conversion of monoculture on mine sites into more biodiverse mixed hardwood forests, especially on more fertile deposits, can be an emerging need in this part of Europe in next decades. The ability to classify the forests at these post-mining sites will facilitate proper species selection as well as the management and formation of the developed ecosystem's stability. This work describes the guidelines that can be followed to assess reclaimed mine soil (RMS) quality, using the mine soil quality index (MSQI) and a classification of developed forest sites as a basis of tree-stand species selection and conversion of pine monocultures. The research was conducted on four post-mining facilities (lignite, hard coal, sulphur, and sand pit mining areas) on different RMS substrates dominant in Central Europe. Soil quality assessment takes into account the following features of the soil: texture soil nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P); acidity (pH KCl); and Corg-to-Nt ratio in the initial organic horizon. An analysis was conducted of classification systems using the MSQI validation correlation (at p =0.05) with vegetation features affected by succession: aboveground biomass of forest floor and ecological indicators of vascular plants (calculated on the basis of Ellenberg's (2009) system). Eventually, in the analysed data set, the MSQI ranged from 0.270 for soils on quaternary sands to 0.720 for a mix of quaternary loamy sands with neogene clays. Potential forest habitat types and the role of the pine in the next generation of tree stands on different RMS parent rock substrate were proposed. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Slupski J.,Agricultural University of Krakow
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
The aim of the work was to evaluate the amino acid content and protein quality in products of immature bean seeds with a dry matter content of 40%. The investigation included raw seeds, fresh seeds after cooking to consumption consistency and seeds after canning. Raw seeds of the cultivar Alamo contained more amino acids in 100 g fresh matter than the seeds of the cultivars Flaforte and Mona. Cooking and sterilisation brought about decreases in the content of all the amino acids in the investigated cultivars; 1-50% and 9-60% respectively. Higher losses being noted in sterilised seeds. If the results were expressed in 16 g N, the differences in amino acid content were much smaller. The amino acid content of Mona was lower than that of the remaining cultivars. The cooking of seeds did not bring about changes in relation to the raw material (except tyrosine which showed a decrease 35-45%); however, sterilisation affected the content of most amino acids (from -45 to +17%). Compared with the standard (FAO/WHO/UNU, 2007), the limiting amino acid was cystine with methionine (amino acid score 70-83). Of the seeds prepared for consumption, sterilised bean seeds had a higher EAA index value, while of the cultivars, the seeds of Alamo had the highest value (147-162). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.