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Sembratowicz I.,Agricultural University in Lublin | Rusinek-Prystupa E.,Agricultural University in Lublin
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of brewing time on the content of select trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd) in homogeneous and mixed herbs used in therapy of digestive system diseases and in regulation of digestive processes. The study involved 10 types of preparations of herbal teas (mono- and multi-component sachets) acting on the gastrointestinal tract and digestive processes. Also, four types of black teas were examined for comparison. Aqueous extracts were made from each sample. As the manufacturers recommend herbal teas to be brewed for 5-15 min, in our study analyses were carried out for aqueous extracts brewed for 5 and 10 min. Contents of minerals in dry matter of the analyzed herbal and black teas and herbal blends were very differentiated, which could be due to species diversity and origin of the raw material. The brewing time had no significant effect on the percentage of the analyzed microelements extraction to the aqueous phase, however in the case of copper, manganese and lead the longer time of extraction resulted in a reduced yield of this process. An opposite dependency was noted in the case of iron, cadmium, and zinc. Source


Czech A.,Agricultural University in Lublin | Pawlik M.,University of British Columbia | Rusinek E.,Agricultural University in Lublin
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

The contents of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nitrites, and nitrates were determined in six species of cabbage of the cruciferous family obtained from different areas of Poland. The results were analyzed and compared in terms of the effect of local industrial (southern Poland, Katowice) or agricultural (southeastern Poland, Lublin) activities on the amounts of heavy metals in the tested vegetables. While the levels of cadmium, lead, and manganese correlated well with the different industrial levels of the locations, the concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the vegetables were not very different between the two cities. All the vegetables could generally be characterized by low levels of cadmium and lead (less than 0.1 mg·kg-1), and relatively high levels of zinc, iron, and manganese (3-10 mg·kg-1) regardless of location. Among the tested vegetables, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr) from Katowice consistently gave higher levels of all the analyzed elements (except zinc) than the same vegetable from Lublin, while the other specimens produced variable data. Red cabbage turned out to contain the highest levels of all contaminants compared to other vegetable species. Nitrate levels in all the Lublin samples were approximately equal, suggesting that the extensive fertilization in the Lublin area produces a uniform background level of these anions. On the other hand, the Katowice samples exhibited quite variable and extreme levels of nitrates and nitrites. Source


Sembratowicz I.,Agricultural University in Lublin | Rusinek-Prystupa E.,Agricultural University in Lublin
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

Our study was aimed at determining contents of cadmium, lead, and oxalic acid in select wild edible mushrooms harvested from areas potentially more (Ostrowiec Św (P1). and Ożarów (P2)) or less the protection zone of Magurski National Park (M - mountain) exposed to pollution. The experimental material were fruiting bodies of four species of edible mushrooms: boletus (Boletus edulis), bay bolete (Xerocomus badius), red-capped scaber stalk (Leccinum aurantiacum), and slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) collected in late August/early September of 2009. The results of contents of cadmium in the examined mushrooms indicate that the permissible (3 mg·kg-1 d.m.) level was exceeded in fruiting bodies of boletus originating from the polluted (P1, P2) areas and mountain area (M), where its concentration was the highest. Caps and stalks of boletus originating from the protection zone of Magurski National Park were found to contain, respectively, 5.22 mg Cd·kg-1 d.m. and 1.86 mg Cd·kg-1 d.m., on average, (with the value of 3.54 mg Cd·kg-1 d.m. that may be assumed for the whole fruiting body). Taking into a small contribution of mushrooms in a human diet, it does not pose a risk to human health. The concentration of lead in the analyzed mushrooms did not exceed 1.0 mg·kg-1 d.m. The mean content of soluble oxalates in the analyzed species of mushrooms ranged from 35.5 to 104.1 mg·100 g-1 d.m. (per whole fruiting body). Irrespective of the origin, the lowest content of oxalates was reported in fruiting bodies of slippery Jack (35.5-59.1 mg·100 g-1 d.m). Caps of all investigated mushroom species were characterized by ca. 1.6 to 3.1 times higher content of oxalates than the stalks. Source

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