Cabra del Santo Cristo, Spain
Cabra del Santo Cristo, Spain

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Garcia-Martinez O.,University of Granada | De Luna-Bertos E.,University of Granada | Ramos-Torrecillas J.,University of Granada | Ruiz C.,University of Granada | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18- 22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. © 2016 García-Martínez et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Jimenez B.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Sanchez-Ortiz A.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Lorenzo M.L.,University of Granada | Rivas A.,University of Granada
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

There is a need to verify the quality of organically produced olive oils and to compare them to conventional ones. The objective of this study was to assess possible differences in nutritional quality between agronomic practices in Picual and Hojiblanca olive oil varieties at different stages of olive ripeness. The results showed that organic versus conventional cultivation did not consistently affect acidity, peroxide index or spectrophotometric constants of the virgin olive oils considered in this study. On the contrary, phenol content, oxidative stability, tocopherol content and fatty acid composition were affected by the agronomical practices. Principal component analysis indicated that linolenic acid and β-tocopherol were mainly responsible for discriminating Hojiblanca organic oils, whereas total phenols, palmitoleic acid and α-tocopherol were the major contributors to differentiating Picual conventional oils. Lignoceric and stearic acids were related to oils from unripe and ripe olive fruits, respectively. Long-term experiments are required to confirm these results. © 2015 AOCS.

Jimenez B.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Sanchez-Ortiz A.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Lorenzo M.L.,University of Granada | Rivas A.,University of Granada
Food Research International | Year: 2013

This study assesses variations in agronomic and physicochemical parameters, sensory properties and phenolic content of oils obtained from Picudo olives at nine different ripening stages. The agronomic data obtained in this study suggest that the optimal harvesting period for the Picudo cultivar are from samples IV onwards, although harvest is hampered by the fruit resistance to detachment. Data from sensory analysis show that the maximum organoleptic values and the lowest sensory profile changes were found between harvest samples III and V. Finally, principal component analysis and cluster analysis applied to the data analyzed showed a correlation between the ripening stage and the different variables studied. Oils obtained from unripe fruits were found to have the attribute green leaf and a high content of the phenolic compound vanillin. On the other hand, when the fruit was harvested during veraison, the oil obtained had the attributes grass and olive fruity. Finally, when the fruit was picked at an advanced ripening stage, the oil obtained was sweeter. The results obtained in this study show that the optimal harvest periods for Picudo cultivar were IV and V, with ripening indices of 1.85 and 2.0, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rivas A.,University of Granada | Sanchez-Ortiz A.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Jimenez B.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Garcia-Moyano J.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | Lorenzo M.L.,University of Granada
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In recent years, phenolic acids have received considerable attention as they are essential to olive oil quality and nutritional properties. This study aims to validate a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) for analyzing the phenolic acid content of olive oil and assessing its impact on virgin olive oil (VOO) sensory attributes. Once this method was validated, we used it to evaluate the phenolic acid composition of several Spanish monovarietal virgin olive oils in relation to nine different olive ripening stages. The results obtained confirm that the methodology developed in this study is valid for extracting and analyzing phenolic acids from VOO. The phenolic acid content of the virgin olive oils sampled was proven to be influenced by the type of cultivar and olive harvest date. Therefore, phenolic acids might be used as potential markers for olive oil cultivar or ripening stage. Finally, the data obtained indicate that the sensory properties of VOO may be differently affected by its phenolic acid content depending on the type of cultivar. Practical applications: The method validated in the present study - based on UPLC-TOF-MS - allows experts to assess the phenolic acid content of different VOO cultivars (varieties). This application will probably be very useful to the olive oil industry. The reason is that our study revealed that phenolic acids have an impact on the sensory quality of VOO, which is essential to consumer preferences and choice. In addition, there are phenolic acids that are only found in a particular variety of olive oil obtained from fruits at a specific ripening stage. Consequently, phenolic acids could be used as potential markers for olive oil variety and harvest time. © 2013.

Garcia-Martinez O.,University of Granada | Mazzaglia G.,University of Granada | Sanchez-Ortiz A.,Agricultural Research Training Center | Ocana-Peinado F.M.,University of Granada | Rivas A.,University of Granada
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the influence of olive variety and elevation of orchards on the phenolic compound content of Sicilian virgin olive oils (VOOs) and, second, to investigate the effects of VOO phenolic extracts on osteoblast cell growth using the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Olive oil phenolic content and its effect on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation varied according to the type of cultivar and the grove altitude. This variation was also observed within the same type of cultivar. This observation demonstrates that the cultivar and the grove location can significantly affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of virgin olive oil. Although this study supports the hypothesis that virgin olive oil phenolic fractions exert a beneficial effect on bone health, further studies assessing the in vivo accessibility of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds to osteoblast cells should be carried out. © 2014 CSIC.

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