Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon

Valladolid, Spain

Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon

Valladolid, Spain
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Ahmed L.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Rico D.,University of Pamplona | Rico D.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Martin-Diana A.B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Barry-Ryan C.,Dublin Institute of Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Optimization of delactosed whey permeate (DWP) treatment for fresh-cut tomato was accomplished by evaluating different quality, nutritional and microbial markers. Response surface methodology was applied to obtain polynomial model equations. DWP concentration (0-5%) and storage (0-10 days) were used as independent factors in order to optimize the process. The analyses showed that increases in DWP concentration extended the quality of the fresh-cut tomato significantly (p < 0.05) by maintaining texture and antioxidant activity (FRAP) and controlling the spoilage during the storage. The total aerobic counts and yeast and molds were reduced by ∼1.5 log cfu/g and ∼1.0 log cfu/g respectively after 10 days of storage treated with 3% DWP. Ascorbic acid and lycopene were retained best within the range of 3 to 5% of DWP treatment. However, concentrations >3% were scored unacceptable by the sensory panel due to perceived off-odors. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for all the markers studied in fresh-cut tomato with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.79 to 0.99. The study recommends the use of DWP at a concentration of 3% to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut tomato by preserving its quality and antioxidant properties during storage. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Hossain M.B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Hossain M.B.,Teagasc | Brunton N.P.,Teagasc | Patras A.,Biosystems Engineering | And 4 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2012

The present study optimized the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)], total phenol content (TP) and content of individual polyphenols of extracts from marjoram. Optimal conditions with regard to amplitude of sonication (24.4-61.0 μm) and extraction temperature (15-35°C) and extraction time (5-15 min) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the combined treatment conditions of 61 μm, 35°C and 15 min were optimal for maximizing TP, FRAP, rosmarinic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol values of the extracts. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.45% to 1.55%. The extraction yields of the optimal UAE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for all the parameters studied with high regression coefficients (R 2) ranging from 0.58 to 0.989. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hossain M.B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Hossain M.B.,Teagasc | Rai D.K.,Teagasc | Brunton N.P.,Teagasc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A total of 38 phenolic compounds in the solid/liquid extracts of five Lamiaceae spices, rosemary, oregano, sage, basil, and thyme, were identified in the present study using LC-ESI-MS/MS. These compounds were distributed in four major categories, namely, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and phenolic terpenes. Among them, the category of flavonoids was the largest, with 17 compounds. Identification of the phenolic compounds was carried out by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic standards. If standards were unavailable, phenolic compounds were identified on the basis of accurate mass of pseudomolecular [M - H] - ions and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data. The results of accurate mass measurements fit well with the elemental composition of the compounds. The diagnostic fragmentation patterns of the compounds during collision-induced dissociation (CID) elucidated the structural information of the compounds analyzed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Khiari Z.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Khiari Z.,University of Alberta | Rico D.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Martin-Diana A.B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Barry-Ryan C.,Dublin Institute of Technology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Gelatines were extracted from mackerel and blue whiting bones after chemical or enzymatic pre-treatments and their functional properties (solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties) were analysed. The pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) affected the composition and the functional properties of the extracted gelatines. The amino acid analyses showed that chemically pre-treated bone gelatines had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents compared to those extracted after the enzymatic pre-treatment, for both fish species. It was observed that all gelatines had higher solubility at low pH with a maximum value observed at pH 2. A significant effect of ionic strength was observed. Increasing the NaCl concentration to more than 1% resulted in a significant decrease of the solubility. Mackerel bone gelatines showed lower foaming capacity (FC) and higher foaming stability (FS) than blue whiting bone gelatines. Increasing the concentration of gelatine decreased the emulsifying activity index (EAI) but increased the stability index (ESI). The use of enzymes in the pre-treatment process gave gelatines with significantly (p < 0.05) higher EAI and ESI. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Four open ponds inoculated with microalgae-bacteria consortium treating different swine slurries (fresh and anaerobically digested) were evaluated in terms of nitrogen transformation under optimal and real conditions of temperature and illumination. Ammonium complete depletion was not achieved. Ponds operated under real conditions presented lower ammonium removal. Elimination capacities were around 26. mg. N/L. d and were subsequently increased with increasing inlet ammonium loading rate. Different nitrogen transformation was observed depending on substrate source. When anaerobically digested slurry was fed to the ponds, nitrification followed by biomass uptake and denitrification were the main nitrogen transformation taking place depending on inlet ammonium loading rate and operational conditions. Ponds fed with fresh slurry exhibited denitrification as the main nitrogen removal mechanism for the pond operated under real conditions while under optimal conditions stripping, denitrification and biomass uptake contributed similarly. Therefore, this study confirmed that the so-claimed nitrogen recovery by microalgae biomass is frequently overestimated. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

In an attempt to propose an integrated system to treat swine manure, the codigestion of this residue and microalgal biomass was evaluated. Response surface methodology showed that chemical oxygen demand/volatile solids (COD/VS) and COD algae supplement presented a significant effect on methane yield. Second-order polynomial model fitted quite well with the experimental results. Nevertheless, methane yield values achieved were not expected. Highest methane yield was exhibited by swine manure as a sole substrate, while algal biomass digestion reported the lowest. A closer examination to methane production rates showed that methane production was taking place in a higher extent on samples with higher proportion of algae. In agreement with that, nitrogen organic mineralization was low for those trials; hence the recalcitrant nature of the algal cell wall was evidenced. Even though methane production, hence breakage of the cells, was steadily occurring, the need of an algal biomass pretreatment seems to be imperative for the feasibility of this integrated system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Riano-Irazabal B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Blanco S.,University of León | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

There is great controversy regarding the best substrate (fresh or anaerobically digested swine slurry) for the development of microalgae-bacteria consortia. This study aims to elucidate the best substrate by assessing biomass productivity, microorganism predominance, and their ability for organic matter removal. In addition to the different substrates, different operational conditions and influent strengths were evaluated. Increasing organic matter content when favourable temperature and illumination conditions were present improved biomass production. However, these conditions were not favourable for microalgal growth, but they were favourable for bacteria. Regardless of the operational conditions, reactors fed with fresh slurry not only resulted in the highest biomass productivity, but also the greatest removal of total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). On the other hand, reactors fed with digested slurry showed biomass productivity and COD removal values lower than those obtained for reactors fed with fresh slurry, most probably due to the recalcitrant nature of the former. Nevertheless, digested slurry was the substrate more appropriate for microalgae growth under harsh operational conditions (16 °C and 9-h illumination) at low influent strength and optimum operational conditions (30 °C and 24-h illumination) at higher influent strength. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010

Microalgae systems are currently being researched due to their ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions while obtaining a value-added product in the form of biomass. This paper elucidates the ability of microalgal-bacteria consortia for the conversion of organic matter contained in anaerobically digested swine slurry into biomass organic carbon via CO2 uptake. In this context, the configuration of the reactor, different nitrogen availabilities and different microalgal communities developed in the evaluated reactors (open pond and enclosed tubular photobioreactor) were inferred as a possible reason for the different conversion efficiencies found. The biomass quality in terms of macromolecular cell component obtained under the two different reactors did not show any clear difference. The high efficiency in biomass nitrogen uptake resulted in biomass mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins. Finally, the photosynthetic efficiency of the two reactor types showed high values which indicated the high efficiency of converting irradiance supplied to the systems into energy stored in biomass. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Cuetos M.J.,University of León | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes with carbon rich residues was studied. Swine manure and poultry litter were selected as livestock waste, and vegetable processing waste was selected as the rich carbon source. A Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were employed in designing experiments and determine individual and interactive effects over methane production and removal of volatile solids. In the case of swine manure co-digestion, an increase in vegetable processing waste resulted in higher volatile solids removal. However, without a proper substrate/biomass ratio, buffer capacity of swine manure was not able to avoid inhibitory effects associated with TVFA accumulation. Regarding co-digestion with poultry litter, substrate concentration determined VS removal achieved, above 80g VSL-1, NH3 inhibition was detected. Statistical analysis allowed us to set initial conditions and parameters to achieve best outputs for real-scale plant operation and/or co-digestion mixtures design. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Molinuevo-Salces B.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Gonzalez-Fernandez C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Gomez X.,University of León | Garcia-Gonzalez M.C.,Agricultural Technological Institute of Castilla and Leon | Moran A.,University of León
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

The effect of adding vegetable waste as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of swine manure was investigated. The study was carried out at laboratory scale using semi-continuous stirred tank reactors working at 37°C. Organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.4 and 0.6g VSL-1d-1 were evaluated, corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 25 and 15d, respectively. The addition of vegetable wastes (50% dw/dw) resulted in an improvement of 3 and 1.4-fold in methane yields at HRTs of 25 and 15d, respectively. Changes on microbial morphotypes were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Samples analyzed were sludge used as inoculum and digestate obtained from swine manure anaerobic reactors. SEM pictures demonstrated that lignocellulosic material was not completely degraded. Additionally, microbial composition was found to change to cocci and rods morphotypes after 120d of anaerobic digestion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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