Soni P.,Agricultural Systems and Engineering |
Soe M.N.,Agricultural Systems and Engineering
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2015
The status of energy balance and energy economics of irrigated and rain-fed rice production systems is studied and compared for highlighting the effect of farm size. Primary data were collected from 51 irrigated and 54 rain-fed rice farms in Northern Ayeyarwaddy Region, Myanmar. Farm classes were identified as small (<2.5 ha) and large (2.5–25 ha). Energy estimates were calculated from actual amount of inputs and outputs and corresponding conversion factors. Results showed that the total energy inputs were 19,170.5 and 11,031.1 MJ/ha, respectively, in irrigated and rain-fed rice systems, while the total energy outputs were 104,162.7 and 65,033.5 MJ/ha in the two systems, respectively. Energy efficiency ratios, defined as output-to-input energy values, were 5.6 and 5.9 in irrigated and rain-fed rice production systems. Interestingly, the two systems were not statistically different for their energy efficiencies. Similarly, the energy efficiency ratios for different farm classes under both rice production systems were also not statistically different. Energy productivity and specific energy were 0.27 and 3.8 kg/MJ; 0.29 and 3.9 MJ/kg in irrigated and rain-fed systems, respectively. The energy benefit–cost ratio was higher in rain-fed rice (1.1) than in irrigated rice (0.9) system. Rain-fed system seems to have potential of further increasing yield through the increased yet appropriate use of energy inputs. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Ketelaar J.W.,FAOs Regional IPM Programme |
Kumar P.,Agricultural Systems and Engineering
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
Pesticide use in vegetable production among smallholder farmers in Asia remains unnecessarily high. Enduring concerns over farmer health and environmental pollution caused by indiscriminate use of pesticides, call for safer and more sustainable crop protection strategies. New concerns over food safety in relation to pesticide residues on fresh and processed vegetables intended for domestic and export markets provide momentum for further development and application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of Good Agricultural Practices promotion efforts. At the same time, climate change is facilitating the spread of new invasive pest species, often prompting farmers to use more pesticides. FAO has been working with Asian governments, civil society organizations and the private sector to develop robust IPM strategies for a range of economicallyimportant vegetable crops during the last decade. Case studies of successfully employed vegetable IPM strategies, resulting into major crop production improvements and reductions in pesticide use, will be detailed in this paper. Apart from assistance to governments to strengthen pesticide regulatory systems, FAO also continues to assist National IPM Programmes in the Asia region to implement farmer IPM training, using the innovative and successful Farmers Field School approach. This paper will therefore also outline training achievements to date and results from this important training work, aimed at turning vegetable farmers into IPM experts.