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Zhang Y.-Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu C.-H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.-B.,Agricultural Science Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2016

Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley and is considered to be one of the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. Chitin is a critical component of the fungal cell wall and is polymerized from UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine by chitin synthase. We characterized FgCHS8, a new class of the chitin synthase gene in F. graminearum. Disruption of FgCHS8 resulted in reduced accumulation of chitin, decreased chitin synthase activity, and had no effect on conidia growth when compared with the wild-type isolate. δ. FgCHS8 had a growth rate comparable to that of the wild-type isolate in vitro. However, δ. FgCHS8 had reduced growth when grown on agar supplemented with either 0.025% SDS or 0.9 mM salicylic acid. δ. FgCHS8 produced significantly less deoxynivalenol and exhibited reduced pathogenicity in wheat spikes. Re-introduction of a functional FgCHS8 gene into the δ. FgCHS8 mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that FgCHS8 protein was initially expressed in the septa zone, and then gradually distributed over the entire cellular membrane, indicating that FgCHS8 was required for cell wall development. Our results demonstrated that FgCHS8 is important for cell wall sensitivity to environmental stress factors and deoxynivalenol production in F. graminearum. © 2016 The British Mycological Society.

Feng R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Feng R.,Open Key Laboratory of Agro environment | Qiu W.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Lian F.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the optimal planting mode for pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) in Cd-contaminated soil to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts while maintaining yields. Four additives (red mud (RM), silicon calcium fertiliser (SC), spodium (SP) and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP)), two foliar fertilisers (Ca and Zn) and two varieties of pakchoi (Aijiaohuang (AJ) and Baixuegongzhu (BX)) were used in this study. The results show that the addition of SC and RM had an effect, but the other additives did not appear to increase the biomasses of AJ and BX. In some cases, the growth responses of AJ and BX to the same treatment were different. Extra additions of Ca or Zn to additive-treated pakchoi did not help the additives stimulate the growth of AJ and BX, except for SC-treated AJ and BX and SP-treated AJ. The SC and CMP additives significantly reduced the available Cd concentration in both the AJ soil and the BX soil; however, they did not significantly decrease the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. The RM treatments (for both levels) and some treatments containing SP reduced the available Cd concentration in the soils and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the two pakchoi varieties. Additions of Ca or Zn fertiliser significantly reduced the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. However, when Ca or Zn was sprayed on the additive-treated AJ and BX, they did not help the additives reduce the Cd accumulation in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX, except for the additive CMP. This study shows that RM may be an optimal amendment to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of pakchoi while simultaneously maintaining yields. The utilisation of Ca or Zn as a foliar fertiliser to additive-treated pakchoi showed positive effects only under some conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Qi P.-F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Le C.-X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.-B.,Agricultural Science Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2014

The γ-prolamins are important components of seed storage proteins in wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, the γ-prolamin genes from the diploid Triticeae species were systemically characterized. Most of the γ-prolamins (except 75 K γ-secalins) characterized were defined as γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamins, since they shared a same characteristic model structure with γ-gliadins. Over one third of these putatively functional γ-prolamin peptides contained different number of cysteine residues as compared to the eight residues present in γ-gliadins. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses showed the conservation of γ-prolamin genes in Triticeae species under evolutionary selection. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these γ-prolamin genes can not be clearly separated according to their genomic origins, reflecting the conservation of γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes after the divergence of Triticeae species. A screening of coeliac disease (CD) toxic epitopes shows that the γ-prolamins from some other genomes contain much fewer epitopes than those from the A, S (B) and D genomes of wheat. These findings contribute to better understanding of γ-prolamin family in Triticeae and build a ground for breeding less CD-toxic wheat cultivars. © 2014 Indian Academy of Sciences.

Qian J.,Agricultural Science Research Institute | Wang G.,Zhejiang Wanli University | Zeng L.,Agricultural Science Research Institute
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

The characteristics of soil solarization and efficiency against watermelon wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum), with different colors, different layers of plastic mulching and irrigation were investigated inside greenhouses during 2004 and 2005 at hot season in Ningbo, China. The results showed that the irrigation and plastic mulching treatment could significantly add the soil temperature at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm depths and increase 10~15°C compared with the CK(un-mulched). It was also found that warming effect of bilayer transparent mulching was the best and monolayer transparent mulching was followed. After mulching 10 d by the monolayer transparent membrane, soil temperature at 5~20 cm depths could be maintained above 40°C throughout the day. Watermelon wilt test showed that the control effect of the first crop of continuous cropping watermelon wilt covered by the monolayer transparent membrane more than 25 d was 100% and the anti-efficiency of the second crop covered by same membrane was also more than 84.5%. The laboratory test showed that the death time of Fusariurn oxysporurn f. sp. niveum in watermelon roots was 4 d in 41°C and 1 d in 43°C. Therefore, it is very effective to control the presence of watermelon wilt by monolayer plastic mulching at hot season in Southern China.

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