Maringá, Brazil
Maringá, Brazil

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Corradini S.A.S.,Agricultural Science Center | Madrona G.S.,Agricultural Science Center | Visentainer J.V.,State University of Maringá | Bonafe E.G.,State University of Maringá | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Moraes W.B.,São Paulo State University | de Jesus Junior W.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Cecilio R.A.,Agricultural Science Center | Mafia R.G.,FIBRIA S.A. | And 3 more authors.
Summa Phytopathologica | Year: 2014

Rust, caused by Puccinia psidii, is one of the most important diseases affecting eucalyptus in Brazil. This pathogen causes disease in mini-clonal garden and in young plants in the field, especially in leaves and juvenile shoots. Favorable climate conditions for infection by this pathogen in eucalyptus include temperature between 18 and 25 °C, together with at least 6-hour leaf wetness periods, for 5 to 7 consecutive days. Considering the interaction between the environment and the pathogen, this study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of global climate changes on the spatial distribution of areas of risk for the occurrence of eucalyptus rust in Brazil. Thus, monthly maps of the areas of risk for the occurrence of this disease were elaborated, considering the current climate conditions, based on a historic series between 1961 and 1990, and the future scenarios A2 and B2, predicted by IPCC. The climate conditions were classified into three categories, according to the potential risk for the disease occurrence, considering temperature (T) and air relative humidity (RH): i) high risk (18 ≤ T ≤ 25 °C and RH ≥ 90%); ii) medium risk (18 ≤ T ≤ 25 °C and RH < 90%; T< 18 or T > 25 °C and RH ≥ 90%); and iii) low risk (T < 18 or T > 25 °C and RH < 90%). Data about the future climate scenarios were supplied by GCM Change Fields. In this study, the simulation model Hadley Centers for Climate Prediction and Research (HadCm3) was adopted, using the software Idrisi 32. The obtained results led to the conclusion that there will be a reduction in the area favorable to eucalyptus rust occurrence, and such a reduction will be gradual for the decades of 2020, 2050 and 2080 but more marked in scenario A2 than in B2. However, it is important to point out that extensive areas will still be favorable to the disease development, especially in the coldest months of the year, i.e., June and July. Therefore, the zoning of areas and periods of higher occurrence risk, considering the global climate changes, becomes important knowledge for the elaboration of predicting models and an alert for the integrated management of this disease.

Yao S.,New Mexico State University | Guldan S.,New Mexico State University | Flynn R.,Agricultural Science Center | Ochoa C.,Oregon State University
HortScience | Year: 2015

In 2011, 16 strawberry cultivars were planted with two planting systems—a black-plastic-covered perennial system (BP) and a matted-row system (MR)—arranged in a split-block design with four replications at the New Mexico State University (NMSU) SustainableAgriculture ScienceCenter, Alcalde,NM. Cultivars varied greatly in their yield and tolerance to high-pH soil. ‘Allstar’, ‘Chandler’, and ‘Darselect’ were the three most sensitive cultivars to high soil pH among the 16 cultivars tested, whereas ‘Wendy’, ‘Brunswick’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Clancy’ were the four most tolerant cultivars by the end of July 2011. Two to three applications of 0.67 g·m–1 (linear row) FeEDDHA were used per year through fertigation to effectively treat leaf chlorosis resulting from high soil pH. After averaging the yields of 2012 and 2013, ‘Mesabi’ and ‘Kent’ had greater yield than others and twice the yield of ‘Jewel’. Early cultivars Earliglow and Annapolis and late cultivars L’Amour and Ovation all had low yields in both years. In Jan. 2013, the minimum temperature reached –21.7 8C, which caused crown damage to some cold-tender cultivars, especially in the black-plastic-covered system. ‘Wendy’, ‘Chandler’, ‘Clancy’, and ‘Jewel’ were the cold-tender cultivars, whereas ‘Mesabi’, ‘Kent’, ‘Cavendish’, and ‘Honeoye’were the hardiest among those tested. Despite repeated late frosts from 19 Apr. to 4 May 2013 and a delayed harvest season, most cultivars produced greater yield than in 2012 with ‘Mesabi’ and ‘Kent’ being the greatest. There were no significant differences in yields in 2012 and 2013 between BP andMRtreatments, but yield in BP was significantly lower than inMRin 2014.With appropriate cultivar selection and management, growers can produce strawberries in high-pHsoil at high elevation with a short growing season in the Southwest. © 2015, HORTSCIENCE. All rights reserved.

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