Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center

Wyndmoor, PA, United States

Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center

Wyndmoor, PA, United States
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Essandoh M.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Garcia R.A.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Strahan G.D.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Synthetic organic polymer flocculants can be highly effective at clarifying suspensions, but these substances may also have negative environmental and health effects. Relatively few studies have been done using biobased flocculants, which are more environment friendly. Hemoglobin (Hb) has previously been demonstrated to be a promising flocculant of kaolin and lignin suspensions. This study examines the methylation of Hb side chain carboxyl groups for the purpose of improving its flocculation performance at near-neutral pH. RESULTS: Potentiometric titration of methylated Hb (MeHb) showed an approximately 28% degree of methylation when the Hb was suspended in methanol with 0.8 mol L-1 HCl for 48 h. Under some conditions, MeHb clarified suspensions of kaolin at one-quarter the dose that was required for Hb. Furthermore, MeHb exhibited flocculant activity over a wide pH range, compared with Hb. The percentage of original turbidity removed was 37% for Hb while 60% of the original turbidity was removed for MeHb at near-neutral pH (pH = 6.8). CONCLUSIONS: Very small doses of methylated hemoglobin (MeHb) rapidly clarify suspensions of kaolin. The potential of MeHb as a biobased flocculant for the clarification of water for industrial or municipal use was demonstrated. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Taylor M.M.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Medina M.B.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Lee J.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Bumanlag L.P.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2012

Gelatin modified with quebracho to produce high molecular weight, high viscosity products was investigated as a filler in leather processing. The uptake of quebracho/gelatin product by the wet blue was on the average about 55% of the 10% gelatin/quebracho product offered; the reaction appeared to be complete after about 4 h. The uptake of quebracho alone by the wet blue was run as a control; after 2 h almost 100% of the quebracho was taken up by the hide. As a second control, the effect of eliminating vegetable tannins (quebracho and mimosa) from the retan, color, and fatliquor (RCF), on properties of the crust was tested. Epi-fluorescent imaging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated distinctive differences between the two control samples and the gelatin/quebracho treated hide. The gelatin/quebracho treated samples had superior subjective properties when compared to untreated controls; differences in mechanical properties were dependent on whether vegetable tannin was present or absent in RCF. Thus a filler produced from a common vegetable tannin (quebracho) and a waste product from the leather industry (gelatin) can add economic value to leather by improving its quality.


Taylor M.M.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Bumanlag L.P.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Lee J.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Latona N.P.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2015

When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. At the present time, gelatin is in short supply, costs are increasing, and there is an urgent need to find a substitute that could be combined with the gelatin, thereby, partially replacing and reducing the amount of gelatin required, with the goal that the new products would retain the desired characteristics of gelatin products. We have evaluated the potential of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenols with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of these reactions. These combinations would take advantage of the distinctive properties of both species and at the same time create products with improved functional properties. Recently, the preparation of polyphenolic-modified gelatin/whey biopolymer products was investigated, and the results of product characterization using physicochemical analyses indicated optimal products that could be used as fillers. In this continuing study, these products were applied to wet white, that was then finished, and subjective and mechanical properties were evaluated. At the same time a method was developed to determine the rate of uptake of the product. Results of the studies will be presented. These findings could further add to the knowledge of using renewable resources in production of unique products that may have leather processing application.


Taylor M.M.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Lee J.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Bumanlag L.P.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Latona R.J.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center | Brown E.M.,Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Center
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2014

Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenols with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). These combinations would take advantage of the unique properties of both species and at the same time create products with enhanced functional properties. We have successfully demonstrated that the polyphenolic gallic acid and the vegetable tannins quebracho and tara could be used to modify gelatin and whey protein concentrate WPC resulting in a subsequent change in the physicochemical properties of each. When gelatin-polyphenol products were used as fillers, considerable improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather and when compared to control samples, there was no significant impact on mechanical properties. In this continuing research, we have begun to evaluate the potential of tara-modified gelatin/WPC biopolymers, specifically for their application as fillers. In this study, modification parameters for gelatin/WPC combinations will be explored, and the results of product characterization using physicochemical analyses will be presented. These studies could further contribute to the use of sustainable resources in production of unique products that may have leather processing applications.

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