Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical

Gainesville, FL, United States

Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical

Gainesville, FL, United States

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Sanders W.R.,University of Florida | Mankin R.W.,Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical | Liburd O.E.,University of Florida | Stelinski L.L.,University of Florida
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

The grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is the principal pest of grapes (Vitis spp. L.) in Florida where chlorpyrifos is 1 of the few chemicals registered for its control. However, chlorpyrifos is not an ideal treatment because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees. Also, the recommended timing of application conflicts with harvest dates. There is an effective cultural control method, known as mounding, but this method is currently cost prohibitive for commercial production and is not widely used. If mounding could be applied only to infested plants, the cost of this method would be reduced considerably. This study evaluated the potential of acoustics for detecting the larvae in-situ. Human listeners assessed likelihood of arthropod infestation for each site based on live acoustic samples as they were being recorded. Computer software later constructed acoustic indicators from these recordings that were used for computer assessment of infestation likelihood. After recording, the roots of sampled vines were excavated to determine infestation levels. Infestation likelihood predictions of both human listeners and computer software largely reflected infestation condition of tested sites. Consequently, acoustic methods could be developed as tools for growers to employ mounding only at sites most likely to be infested, and thus enable more cost-effective use of this cultural control tactic.


Huffaker A.,Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical | Dafoe N.J.,Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical | Schmelz E.A.,Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize (Zea mays) gene, ZmPROPEP1. ZmPROPEP1 was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEPR2, AtPep1 functions to activate and amplify innate immune responses in Arabidopsis and enhances resistance to both Pythium irregulare and Pseudomonas syringae. Candidate orthologs to the AtPROPEP1 gene have been identified from a variety of crop species; however, prior to this study, activities of the respective peptides encoded by these orthologs were unknown. Expression of the ZmPROPEP1 gene is induced by fungal infection and treatment with jasmonic acid or ZmPep1. ZmPep1 activates de novo synthesis of the hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene and induces the expression of genes encoding the defense proteins endochitinase A, PR-4, PRms, and SerPIN. ZmPep1 also stimulates the expression of Benzoxazineless1, a gene required for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinoid defenses, and the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside in leaves. To ascertain whether ZmPep1-induced defenses affect resistance, maize plants were pretreated with the peptide prior to infection with fungal pathogens. Based on cell death and lesion severity, ZmPep1 pretreatment was found to enhance resistance to both southern leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot caused by Cochliobolis heterostrophus and Colletotrichum graminicola, respectively.We present evidence that peptides belonging to the Pep family have a conserved function across plant species as endogenous regulators of innate immunity and may have potential for enhancing disease resistance in crops. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.


PubMed | Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant physiology | Year: 2011

ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize (Zea mays) gene, ZmPROPEP1. ZmPROPEP1 was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEPR2, AtPep1 functions to activate and amplify innate immune responses in Arabidopsis and enhances resistance to both Pythium irregulare and Pseudomonas syringae. Candidate orthologs to the AtPROPEP1 gene have been identified from a variety of crop species; however, prior to this study, activities of the respective peptides encoded by these orthologs were unknown. Expression of the ZmPROPEP1 gene is induced by fungal infection and treatment with jasmonic acid or ZmPep1. ZmPep1 activates de novo synthesis of the hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene and induces the expression of genes encoding the defense proteins endochitinase A, PR-4, PRms, and SerPIN. ZmPep1 also stimulates the expression of Benzoxazineless1, a gene required for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinoid defenses, and the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside in leaves. To ascertain whether ZmPep1-induced defenses affect resistance, maize plants were pretreated with the peptide prior to infection with fungal pathogens. Based on cell death and lesion severity, ZmPep1 pretreatment was found to enhance resistance to both southern leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot caused by Cochliobolis heterostrophus and Colletotrichum graminicola, respectively. We present evidence that peptides belonging to the Pep family have a conserved function across plant species as endogenous regulators of innate immunity and may have potential for enhancing disease resistance in crops.

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