Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab

Peshāwar, Pakistan

Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab

Peshāwar, Pakistan
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Badshah H.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Ullah F.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Calatayud P.A.,University Paris - Sud | Crickmore N.,University of Sussex
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In Pakistan, the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha (Homoptera): Pseudococcidae), is a serious pest of many cultivated plants. A parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), is associated with P. solenopsis. In order to mass rear A. bambawalei for a biological control programme, it is important to investigate the parasitoid’s host stage preference and its parasitism behaviour for P. solenopsis in order to optimise production. The present study showed that under both choice and no-choice conditions, the parasitoid preferred third instar and pre-reproductive host stage mealybugs for parasitism. Parasitoid larva developing inside the host exhibited a greater longevity, shorter developmental period and longer body size in these preferred host stages. Our study also confirmed that A. bambawalei showed no attraction to male mealybugs and no host feeding on any host stage was recorded. The ability of the parasitoid to effectively discriminate between suitable and non-suitable stages means that it is feasible to rear it on a mixed population. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


PubMed | University of Swabi, Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, University of Agriculture, Peshawar and University Paris - Sud
Type: | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2017

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest of various cultivated plants in Pakistan. Recent reports show that the parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a good biocontrol agent of the pest. Compatibleness is important in any IPM programme, and the insecticide used must have little or no effects on the biological control agent. This study investigated the compatibility of neem treatments and a commercial insecticide, imidacloprid on A. bambawalei. Bioassays were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the adult stage of the parasitoid was more susceptible to the commercial insecticide imidacloprid than the concealed pupal stage. Moreover, on the basis of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) toxicity categories of the commercial insecticide, imidacloprid was moderately toxic throughout the study period (Ex >80%) while neem was slightly toxic after 24h of use (Ex <80%). Results also suggest that A. bambawalei release should be delayed for at least 1week after neem treatments. Because imidacloprid destroys A. bambawalei, it might cause resurgence of P. solenopsis; thus, farmers should avoid integrating the insecticide in the control of P. solenopsis.


Javid M.,Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission | Mustafa S.,University of Peshawar | Samreen T.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab
Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) | Year: 2016

Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), point of zero charge (PZC) and dissolution studies. XRD showed the sample to be amorphous, FTIR confirmed the presence of OH groups on the surface and PZC was determined at pH 3.45. The dissolution study illustrated a decrease in dissolution with an increase in the pH. Potentiometric titration data were fit to the Gaines–Thomas equation, which showed that AlPO4 is a weakly acidic ion exchanger. Sorption studies were carried out at pH 4–6 and temperatures 293–323 K. The uptake of metal ions was observed to increase with an increase in the pH and temperature. The surface selectivity towards metal ions was found in the order Pb2+> Cu2+> Cd2+. Sorption data were fit to the new equation derived from the proposed mechanism for metal ion uptake. Various parameters such as stoichiometry of the surface H+ ion release, equilibrium constant, standard enthalpy, entropy and free energy changes were evaluated from the plots. The values of all these parameters were found to be closely related to the values reported in the literature. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Khan M.A.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Afridi R.A.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Hashim S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khattak A.M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

To evaluate the allelopathic effects of major crops and weeds, studies were conducted during 2011–12 and 2012–13 by utilizing water extracts of allelopathic plants namely rice (Oryza sativa L.), Parthenium hysterophorus L., Phragmites australis Cav., and Datura alba L. with reduced rates of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxynil plus MCPA to control weeds. Application of Phragmites australis and Parthenium hysterophorus along with lower rates of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxynil plus MCPA showed promising results by controlling weeds and improving yield. Parthenium hysterophorus extract with half of the recommended dose of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxynil plus MCPA reduced weed density by 51 and 50% during year 1 and year 2, respectively, compared with the control. Phragmites australis extract with half of the recommended dose of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl produced grain yield (5.7 and 6.1 t ha−1 during year 1 and 2, respectively) in wheat. However, these results were also at par with Parthenium hysterophorus and Datura alba extracts in combinations with half the recommended doses of the above mentioned herbicides. The study of microbial activity showed higher amount of mineralizable carbon in D. alba with half the recommended dose of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl treated plots (0.073 g during both the years). The lowest amount of mineralizable carbon (0.035 and 0.030 g during year 1 and 2, respectively) was observed in the control plots. The presence of allelopathic plants in field crops and subsequent mixing in soil by tillage may create problems in crop production. Therefore, further studies are suggested to fully explore all the possible interactions among allelochemicals and herbicides. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Ali H.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is an important agriculture province of Pakistan, spread over 74,521 km2 with a population of over 22 million. It accounts for 10% of Pakistan's GDP. Major cash crops include wheat, maize, tobacco, rice, sugar cane, as well as fruits produced in the province. Since 2005 the province has faced great problems - the 2005 Earthquake, 2009 Terrorism (Talibanization) and the 2010 floods. All these have greatly affected the agriculture of the province. A survey was carried out in different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Farmers were randomly selected and questions were asked through a questionnaire to know the main constraints in their farming system, which has led to low yield production. All the respondents pointed out their main problems in their farming. Approximately 60% of the farmers did not have access to modern agriculture equipment and were still using traditional agriculture technologies in their farming. 10% of farmers in some parts do not have access to tractors. The results in the study indicated that only 30-35% of the farmers have access to seed drills. Only 15-20% have access to reaper windrowers. Only 10% of farmers used combine harvester in the whole province. There were only 2-5% farmer who adopted fertilizer band placement drills. Only a very small percentage of farmers had knowledge about and access to seed processing machines/units. All these indicated that the farmers have less information about, and less availability of, agriculture machinery in this province. Regular workshops for the farmers should be arranged to increase their knowledge and interest in modern technology. The government and other agriculture organizations should start subsidizing programs for the use of modern agriculture technology. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Awan A.A.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Ullah E.,University of Peshawar | Abbas S.J.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Khan O.,University of Peshawar | Masroor S.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to study growth response of five olive cultivars to different cutting lengths. Hardwood stem cuttings of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 cm were taken from cultivars Azarbaijan, Uslu, Improved Nabali, Manzallino and Leccino. Maximum number of shoots (5.51), shoot length (22.29 cm), root length (12.60 cm) and survival rate (65.55%) was recorded by cultivar Azerbaijan at 20 cm cuttings length, while the first sprouting (33.24 days) and maximum number of roots (15.39) was found in cultivar Azarbaijan at 15 cm cuttings length.


Ullah E.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Awan A.A.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Abbas S.J.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Farhatullah,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to study growth response of 5 olive cultivars to different cutting lengths at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar. Hardwood stem cuttings of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35cm were taken from cultivars Azarbaijan, uslu, Improved Nabali, Manzallino and Leccino. Maximum number of shoot (5.51), shoot length (22.29cm), root length (12.60cm) and survival (65.55%) were recorded by cultivar Azerbaijan at 20cm cuttings length, while early day to sprouting (33.24) and maximum number of roots (15.39) were found in cultivar Azarbaijan at 15cm cuttings length.


Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan M.J.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Shafi M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Sharif M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The present experiment was conducted at Agricultural University Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtun Khwa Pakistan, to study the response of 6 wheat genotypes to foliar ABA applications and induced salinity stress for their proline production using completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Shoot proline contents were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by genotypes, salinity levels, ABA application and their all possible interactions. Maximum proline content and yield attributes were produced by SR-40 when compared with other genotypes under study. High salinity stress (10 dSm-1) had a positive effect on proline synthesis of wheat genotypes. Exposure of plants to both salinity stress and foliar application of ABA resulted in elevated levels of proline and better yield when compared with other treatments.


Shafi M.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Bakht J.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Khan M.J.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Khan M.A.,Qa University | Anwar S.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

The present study was conducted to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to salinity stress. Field experiments were conducted at three different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan i.e., Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Swabi) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda) to study the performance of 11 wheat genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR- 25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile i.e., Yar Hussain, EC. 3-3.5 dSm-1; Baboo Dehari, EC. 4- 4.5 dSm-1 and Khitab Koroona, EC. 5-5.30 dSm-1). Different locations and wheat genotypes had a significant (p<0.05) effect on biological and grain yield, shoot Na+ and K+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence). Maximum biological and grain yield, maximum shoot K+, and minimum Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded in genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. Our results further indicated that maximum biological and grain yield and minimum shoot K+, Na+ concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded at Yar Hussain. Maximum, K+ and Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and minimum biological and grain yield were observed at Khitab Koroona.


Shafi M.,University of Peshawar | Khan M.J.,Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab | Bakht J.,University of Peshawar | Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The study entitled "Response of wheat genotypes to salinity under field environment" was conducted to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to salinity stresses. The experiment was laid out at three different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan i.e., Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Mardan) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda) to study the performance of 11 wheat genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR-25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile i.e., Yar Hussain (EC. 3-3.5 dSm-1), Baboo Dehari (EC. 4-4.5 dSm-1) and Khitab Koroona (EC. 5-5.30 dSm-1). Different locations and wheat genotypes had significantly (p<0.05) effected grain yield, shoot Na+ and shoot K++ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence). Maximum grain yield, maximum shoot K+ and minimum Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded from genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. Our results further indicated highest grain yield compared with lowest shoot K+, Na+ concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) at Yar Hussain. Maximum, K+ and Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and minimum grain yield were recorded at Khitab Koroona.

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