Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.

Kroměříž, Czech Republic

Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.

Kroměříž, Czech Republic

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Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd. | Krianova K.,HORDEUM Ltd. Novy
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2012

Spring barley was the second largest crop in Slovakia. Resistance genes in cultivars registered in Slovakia from 2000 to 2010 were identified using the postulation method. Forty-three cultivars including 30 individually harvested plants, two parents 'Meltan' and 'Pax' and a standard line SK5968 were tested at the seedling stage for their reaction to 40 selected isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In total, 19 resistance spectra were detected and the following 13 resistance genes were postulated, namely mlo, Mla1, Mla6, Mla12, Mla13, MlaRu4, Mlat, Mlg, MlLa, Ml(Ab), Ml(Hu4), Ml(Ro) and Ml(St). Two unknown resistances were detected in 'Calcule' and 'Spilka'. Two cultivars ('Madonna' and 'Nadir') exhibited heterogeneity for mildew resistance. The most frequent gene was mlo, which was present in 25 of the tested cultivars. Some new results to previously published data were found.


Teturova K.,Masaryk University | Repkova J.,Masaryk University | Lizal P.,Masaryk University | Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2010

The accession PI466197 of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) with a newly identified resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei was studied with the aim to localise the genes determining resistance on a barley genetic map using DNA markers. Molecular analysis was performed in the F2 population of the cross between the winter variety 'Tiffany' and the resistant accession PI466197, consisting of 113 plants. DNA markers, 17 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), four sequence-tagged sites (STSs) and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker developed from the Mla locus sequence were used for genetic mapping and a two-locus model of resistance was shown. One of the resistance genes originating from H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum PI466197 was localised between the markers RGH1aE1 and Bmac0213 on the short arm of chromosome 1H, which is the position consistent with the Mla locus. The other gene was proven to be highly significantly linked with GBMS247, Bmac0134 and MWG878 on the short arm of chromosome 2H. The flanking markers were Bmac0134 and MWG878, assigned 4 and 8 cM from the resistance gene, respectively. Until now, no gene conferring powdery mildew resistance originating from H. vulgare has been located on the short arm of barley chromosome 2H. © 2009 Association of Applied Biologists.


Repkova J.,Masaryk University | Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.
Euphytica | Year: 2010

PI284752, an accession of wild barley (Hordeumvulgare ssp. spontaneum) resistant to powdery mildew caused by Blumeriagraminis f.sp. hordei, was studied with the aim of identifying genes involved in powdery mildew resistance. An F2 population (456 plants) was established from a cross between the winter barley variety 'Tiffany' and PI284752. This cross demonstrated a two-locus model of resistance. Linkage analysis using polymorphic DNA markers was carried out on 180 plants. The RGH1a gene sequence from the Mla locus was used as a source for developing the RGH1aE2I2 marker. By interval mapping on chromosome 1HS, one resistance gene was found to be tightly linked with RGH1aE2I2 and it was found to be located 2 cM from GBMS062. In F2 plants exhibiting resistance reaction type (RT) 0, specific DNA fragments for the RGH1aE2I2 marker were amplified. In plants with RT1 to RT2-3, the resistance was conferred exclusively by the second R gene that we identified, which is linked with Bmac0134 and GBMS247 on chromosome 2HS. The aforementioned markers may be valuable candidates for marker-assisted selection of resistant genotypes conferred by one or both genes. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Jensen H.R.,McGill University | Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd. | Sadiki M.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II | Schoen D.J.,McGill University
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Limited information is available about the spatial distribution and evolution of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei populations in North African countries, such as Morocco. Frequencies of virulence alleles in B. graminis populations are mainly driven by selection exerted by host resistance genes in addition to neutral processes such as migration and genetic drift. In Morocco, in contrast to Europe, there has been no systematic deployment of resistant cultivars, although some R genes are present in the traditional varieties. This is expected to result in the evolution of pathotypes with virulence to different R genes, and higher diversity in Morocco compared to Europe. To test this, we used 24 differential cultivars to characterise 72 isolates from Morocco in 2009. We assessed diversity and spatial structure of pathotypes and compared them to past isolates from the same area (collected in 1992). There was a high diversity of pathotypes. Isolates from 2009 were distinct from isolates from 1992, due to loss of virulence to Mla12, increased virulence to Mla8, Mla3 and Mlk1, and decreased virulence to Mla6, Ml(Ru2), Mlg and MlLa. Many virulences were different from those observed in European and Asian populations of B. graminis. At the spatial scale investigated, airborne dispersal and a lack of strong selection in the host population likely prevented the formation of population structure and allowed the accumulation of high isolate diversity. The evolution of novel and distinct pathotypes since 1992 is likely attributable to gene flow from Europe and selection by the host population in Morocco. © 2013 KNPV.


Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd. | Kosman E.,Tel Aviv University
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Virulence analysis of 224 isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (barley powdery mildew) from South Africa was performed. The isolates were collected from eight fields and a greenhouse in 2004 and 2007. The isolates were tested for virulence on a set of 20 differential varieties. All isolates were virulent on the resistance genes Mla8 and Ml(Ch) and avirulent for the resistance genes Mla3, Mla6, Mla7, Mla9, Mla13, Mla23, Mlp1 and MlaN81. Virulence frequencies of field isolates for the resistance genes Mla12 + MlaEm2, Mlat, Mla22, Mlk1 and Mlh were 52. 9-99. 5 % and for Mla1 + MlaAl2, MlLa, Mlra, Mlg + MlCP and Ml(Ru2) were 0. 5-23. 5 %. In total, 46 pathotypes were detected in the field and seven other pathotypes in the greenhouse. Only nine pathotypes were found in both years, but they included 61. 8 % of the isolates. The predominant pathotype represented 15. 9 % of the isolates, and was the only one common to all three field populations. The average relative virulence complexity per field isolate increased from 0. 405 in 2004 to 0. 486 in 2007. Two powdery mildew metapopulations in geographically distant and separated areas (North West and Western Cape) were deduced. The South African population of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei had unique virulence frequencies and virulence associations when compared to populations from other parts of the world. © 2012 KNPV.


Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2011

Information on disease severity assists greatly with making decisions about crop protection systems. However, there are no published long-term field trials in different locations to determine the severity of individual diseases. National trials that relate to the agronomic traits of varieties, including disease responses, are available. The current article describes the use of such data to determine disease severity based on official Czech variety trials. In total, 838 and 334 field trials of spring and winter barley, respectively, conducted from 1976 to 2005, were analysed. To compare year to year powdery mildew severity, five parameters were used. Annual disease severity in both crops differed substantially, whereas similarity of the disease severity was rare. During the last 15 years, disease severity in spring barley was stable despite a rapid increase in the area of fully resistant spring barley varieties, particularly those with the gene mlo. During the period 1976-2005, the mean disease severity in winter barley accounted for 64.1% of the mean disease severity in spring barley. The effect of deployment of the resistance genes and growing areas of winter barley on the determined disease severity was analysed. The method described here allows easy comparisons to be made of disease severity among years, locations and different crops and diseases if similar scoring scales for disease infection evaluation are used. © 2011 The Author. Annals of Applied Biology © 2011 Association of Applied Biologists.


Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

With 3 tables In the last two decades, powdery mildew resistance has been investigated in a large number of barleys grown in the Czech Republic. Apart from those with the Mlo resistance, 29 spring barley cultivars were as fully resistant. In this study, tests on 22 of these cultivars are presented. Forty reference isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, including five isolates collected in 2008, were used. Two of the latter were virulent on 18 cultivars including 'Havanna', 'Marnie' and 'Roxana'. 'Roxana' derived its resistance from wild barley accession 1B-86B, and was the first cultivar registered with this resistance. It is recommended that this resistance be designated Ro. According to their pedigrees, the resistances of 'Andrey' and 'Lilly' were also derived from 'Marnie'. It is likely that the resistance of IN 0614 and NORD 06/1108 is Mlo. Thus, among the 29 cultivars, there are only two resistances, and only Mlo remains fully resistant. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd.
Biologia | Year: 2011

Resistance to causal agents of diseases is an important varietal characteristic that influences the management practice of crop plants and thus production costs of commodities. At present, almost all European barley varieties possess at least one major gene for resistance to powdery mildew. After hybridizing selected parental varieties, resistance genes often segregate in subsequent generations and, therefore, some varieties comprise lines that differ in the number or combinations of resistance genes. The objective of this research was to describe the various methods available for postulating resistance genes to pathogens in heterogeneous varieties using resistance to powdery mildew of barley as an example. Four spring barleys ('Orbit', 'Malva', 'Tocada' and CLE 233), and a six-row variety of winter barley, F 12872, were screened. For postulating resistance genes, several testing procedures and many Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei isolates were used. Minimum amounts of seed were determined and different methods of obtaining homogeneous seed samples from heterogeneous varieties were compared. It was found that 'Orbit' and 'Malva' are composed of three and 'Tocada', CLE 233 and F 12872 of two lines with different resistances to powdery mildew. Problems of postulating resistance genes in heterogeneous varieties and the advantages of testing leaf segments instead of young plants are discussed. © 2011 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Powdery mildew caused by the airborne biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a common disease of barley. Although it can be controlled by fungicide applications, genetic resistance is an efficient and more environmentally acceptable way of limiting its effect on yield and quality. Spring barley is the second largest cereal crop in the Czech Republic and seventy spring barley cultivars (cvs.) were registered from 1996 to 2010. Seedlings of 43 cvs. were tested for reaction to selected isolates of the pathogen and resistance genes were identified using the postulation method. The following 12 known resistance genes were postulated namely, mlo, Mla6, Mla8, Mla12, Mla13, MlaRu4, MlaN81, Mlg, MlLa, Ml(Ab), Ml(Ro) and Ml(St) and two unknown resistances were found in Paulis and Prosa. Four cvs. (Azit, Paulis, Respekt and Tocada) were heterogeneous for mildew response. The most frequently found gene was mlo, which was present in 29 cvs. In nine of 15 cvs. without mlo, Mlg occurred and in seven cvs. genes located in the Mla locus were postulated. A newly identified resistance in Prosa will be further characterised. This report demonstrates that resistance gene postulation from multi-race tests remains an essential research tool for postulating genes for resistance to plant pathogens. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dreiseitl A.,Agricultural Research Institute Kromeriz Ltd | Dreiseitl A.,Hermitage Research Facility | Platz G.,Hermitage Research Facility
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2012

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a major crop in Australia and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is one of its most common diseases. Genes for resistance to powdery mildew were postulated for 86 Australian barley varieties and nine advanced breeding lines using 40 reference isolates of the pathogen. Fifty isolates collected in Australia in 2011 were used for additional tests of some varieties. In total, 22 known resistance genes [mlo, Mla1, MlaAl2, Mla3, Mla6, Mla7, Mla8, Mla9, Mla12, Mla13, Mlat, Mlg, MlGa, Mlk1, MlLa, Mlra, Ml(Ab), Ml(Ch), Ml(Dr2), Ml(He2), Ml(Lo) and Ml(St)] were detected. The most frequent genes were Mla8 and Mlg present in 43 and 34 varieties, respectively, while MlGa was found in 12 varieties. Each of the specific resistance genes Mla1, Mla3, Mla6, Mla9, Mla13, Ml(St) and the non-specific recessive gene mlo was found in one variety only. The varieties Maritime and Stirling appear to carry no specific resistance genes. Fifteen unknown resistances were detected. It is recommended that Australian barley breeding programs exploit European varieties possessing mlo to improve the resistance to powdery mildew in new varieties. © CSIRO 2012.

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