Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region

Saratov, Russia

Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region

Saratov, Russia
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Nikolaychenko N.V.,Saratov State Agrarian University | Eskov I.D.,Saratov State Agrarian University | Muravyova M.V.,Saratov State Agrarian University | Strizhkov N.I.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Azizov Z.M.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2017

Results of long-term double-factor investigations of the study of mineral fertilizers’ optimal doses, seeding rates and crop protection products are given. Depending on the doses of fertilizers and seeding rates biological features of the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus of milk thistle are revealed. Highly productive mid-ripening variety Amulet with a growing season period of 96-105 days provides seeds in amount of 0.98-1.26 t/ ha. The maximum leaf area (54.5 thousand m2/ha), photosynthetic potential (2180 thousand. m2/ha·days), dry above-ground biomass (7-12 t/ha) and roots (4.55 t/ ha) were after N80P80K60 kg application and at seed rate of 500 thousand germinating seeds/ ha. The maximum seed yield (1.26 t/ ha) was after N80P80K60 application and at seed rate of 500 thousand germinating seeds/ ha. It was found out that after escalation of the dose of fertilizers up to N80P80K60 the oil content increases to 32.1% compared with the control variant (29.9%). The largest number of biologically active substances flavolignans (3.0-3.5%) was after N80P80K60 application and at a seed rate of 500 thousand pcs./ ha. After treatment with tank mixture konfidor (50 ml/ha) + detcis (70 ml/ha), and Rex duo (0.6 l/ha) yields of milk thistle seeds increased to a significant degree. © 2017, Pharmainfo Publications. All rights reserved.

Shishkina A.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Dragovich A.Yu.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Rouban A.S.,Russian State Agricultural University | Sibikeev S.N.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | And 2 more authors.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii | Year: 2017

Aegilops columnaris Zhuk. is a potential source of new genes for wheat improvement. However, this species has not yet been used in practical breeding. In the present work we have for the first time reported the development and molecular-cytogenetic characterization of T. aestivum × Ae. columnaris introgression lines. Analysis has not revealed alien genetic material in five of the 20 lines we have studied, while the remaining lines carried from 1 to 3 pairs of Aegilops chromosomes as addition(s) or substitution(s) to wheat chromosomes. Altogether, five different chromosomes of Aegilops columnaris have been detected in the karyotypes of 15 lines by C-banding and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Based on substitution spectra, these chromosomes were identified as 3Ae1, 3Ae2, 5Ae2, 6Ae1 and 6Ae2. In addition, another Aegilops chromosome has been found in the line 2305/1 as a monosomic addition; due to the lack of group-specific markers we were unable to assign this chromosome to a particular genome or a genetic group and therefore it was designated Ae-a. In several lines acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes have been revealed (Ae-b and Ae-c). It is most likely that these chromosomes were derived from unknown Aegilops chromosomes due to a large deletion. A comparison of electrophoretic spectra of gliadins in introgression lines L-2310/1 and L-2304/1 with substitutions of chromosome 6D with two different chromosomes of Ae. columnaris (these lines were assigned to the 6th homoeologous group based on C-banding data) has shown that they carry different alleles of the gliadin loci. This observation confirmed that lines L-2310/1 and L-2304/1 contained non-identical 6Ae chromosomes. Taking into consideration our previous results of FISH analyses, three other Ae. columnaris chromosomes can be assigned to homoeologous groups 1, 5 and 7 of the U-genome based on the location of 5S and 45S rDNA loci (1U and 5U) or pSc119.2 probe distribution (7U). Thus, based on our current data as well as on the results of earlier work, we can identify eight out of the 14 chromosomes of Aegilops columnaris. © AUTHORS, 2017.

Elkonin L.A.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Tsvetova M.I.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Heritable changes of phenotype arising in plant ontogenesis by the influence of environmental factors belong to the most intriguing genetic phenomena. An unusual inheritance pattern was detected during examination of male fertility restoration in the CMS-inducing '9E' type cytoplasm of sorghum: Rf-genes were functional in self-pollinated progeny of F1 hybrids yet were either not expressed or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. In experiments on parallel growing of the same F1 hybrid combinations in the 'dry plot' and in the 'irrigated plot,' it was found that high level of plant water availability during panicle and pollen developmental stages significantly increased male fertility of F1 and test-cross hybrid populations, in which fertility-restoring genes were in heterozygote state, whereas in F2 populations the influences of water availability conditions cause less pronounce effects. Similarly, male-sterile F1 plants, being transferred from the 'dry plot' to greenhouse, produced male-fertile panicles. In addition, male-sterile plants from F2 families, which segregated-out as recessives, being transferred to greenhouse also produced male-fertile panicles. In the progenies of these revertants that were grown in field conditions and in the 'dry plot,' stable inheritance of male fertility for three cycles of self-pollination was observed, and a number of stable fertile lines in the '9E' cytoplasm were obtained. However, in test-crosses of these fertile lines to CMS-lines with the '9E' cytoplasm restoration of male fertility was not observed, except the progeny of one revertant that behaved as fertility-restorer line. These data suggest that the functional state of fertility-restoring genes for the '9E' sorghum cytoplasm is epigenetically regulated trait established by the influence of environmental factors and is transmitted to sexual generations. © 2012 Elkonin and Tsvetova.

Elkonin L.A.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Italianskaya J.V.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Fadeeva I.Y.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Bychkova V.V.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Kozhemyakin V.V.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Improvement of nutritive value is one of the main goals of sorghum breeding. It is known that one of the reasons of relatively poor nutritive value of sorghum grain is resistance of its seed storage proteins (kafirins) to protease digestion that also affects digestibility of starch. To study genetic aspects and interdependency of these traits we investigated in vitro protein and starch digestibility of the flour of 12 grain sorghum lines and six F1 hybrids. Comparison of SDS-PAGE spectra of total grain proteins before and after pepsin digestion revealed that the F1 hybrids had significantly lower indices of protein digestibility than parental lines, with the exception of the F1 hybrid M35-1A KB/KVV-45, which retained high level of protein digestibility typical for KVV-45 line. The level of starch digestibility in the F1 hybrids corresponded to its level in maternal lines suggesting importance of maternal genotype in determination of this trait. It was found that starch digestion by amylolytic enzymes increased the amount of protein in individual kafirin fractions, and reduced the amount of high molecular weight proteins as well it reduced subsequent kafirin digestion by pepsin and caused formation of polypeptide (Mr ~45 kDa), perhaps, the kafirin dimer, resistant to pepsin digestion. These data are of importance for fundamental investigation of factors influencing kafirins and starch interactions in sorghum endosperm and their digestibility. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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