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Elkonin L.A.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Tsvetova M.I.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Heritable changes of phenotype arising in plant ontogenesis by the influence of environmental factors belong to the most intriguing genetic phenomena. An unusual inheritance pattern was detected during examination of male fertility restoration in the CMS-inducing '9E' type cytoplasm of sorghum: Rf-genes were functional in self-pollinated progeny of F1 hybrids yet were either not expressed or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. In experiments on parallel growing of the same F1 hybrid combinations in the 'dry plot' and in the 'irrigated plot,' it was found that high level of plant water availability during panicle and pollen developmental stages significantly increased male fertility of F1 and test-cross hybrid populations, in which fertility-restoring genes were in heterozygote state, whereas in F2 populations the influences of water availability conditions cause less pronounce effects. Similarly, male-sterile F1 plants, being transferred from the 'dry plot' to greenhouse, produced male-fertile panicles. In addition, male-sterile plants from F2 families, which segregated-out as recessives, being transferred to greenhouse also produced male-fertile panicles. In the progenies of these revertants that were grown in field conditions and in the 'dry plot,' stable inheritance of male fertility for three cycles of self-pollination was observed, and a number of stable fertile lines in the '9E' cytoplasm were obtained. However, in test-crosses of these fertile lines to CMS-lines with the '9E' cytoplasm restoration of male fertility was not observed, except the progeny of one revertant that behaved as fertility-restorer line. These data suggest that the functional state of fertility-restoring genes for the '9E' sorghum cytoplasm is epigenetically regulated trait established by the influence of environmental factors and is transmitted to sexual generations. © 2012 Elkonin and Tsvetova.

Elkonin L.A.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Italianskaya J.V.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Fadeeva I.Y.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region | Bychkova V.V.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Kozhemyakin V.V.,Agricultural Research Institute for South East Region
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Improvement of nutritive value is one of the main goals of sorghum breeding. It is known that one of the reasons of relatively poor nutritive value of sorghum grain is resistance of its seed storage proteins (kafirins) to protease digestion that also affects digestibility of starch. To study genetic aspects and interdependency of these traits we investigated in vitro protein and starch digestibility of the flour of 12 grain sorghum lines and six F1 hybrids. Comparison of SDS-PAGE spectra of total grain proteins before and after pepsin digestion revealed that the F1 hybrids had significantly lower indices of protein digestibility than parental lines, with the exception of the F1 hybrid M35-1A KB/KVV-45, which retained high level of protein digestibility typical for KVV-45 line. The level of starch digestibility in the F1 hybrids corresponded to its level in maternal lines suggesting importance of maternal genotype in determination of this trait. It was found that starch digestion by amylolytic enzymes increased the amount of protein in individual kafirin fractions, and reduced the amount of high molecular weight proteins as well it reduced subsequent kafirin digestion by pepsin and caused formation of polypeptide (Mr ~45 kDa), perhaps, the kafirin dimer, resistant to pepsin digestion. These data are of importance for fundamental investigation of factors influencing kafirins and starch interactions in sorghum endosperm and their digestibility. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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