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Laurie S.M.,Agricultural Research Council Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute ARC Roodeplaat VOPI | Faber M.,Nutritional Intervention Research Unit | Calitz F.J.,Agricultural Research Council Biometry Unit | Moelich E.I.,Stellenbosch University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Background: As eating quality is important for adoption of new varieties, nine orange-fleshed and three cream-fleshed sweet potato varieties were assessed for sensory characteristics, dry mass and free sugar content, instrumental texture and colour and consumer acceptability (n= 216) in a peri-urban South African setting. Results: Cream-fleshed varieties were higher in yellow-green colour and sweet potato-like flavour and lower in graininess. Orange-fleshed varieties were higher in pumpkin-like flavour, orange colour, discolouration and sucrose content. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that the most accepted varieties (Impilo, Excel, Resisto, 2001_5_2, Serolane, W-119 and Monate) were associated with sweet flavour, dry mass and maltose content, while the least accepted varieties (Beauregard, Khano and 1999_1_7) were associated with wateriness. Pearson correlation analysis highlighted correlations of sensory attributes yellow and orange with instrumental colour measurements (colour a* and colour b*), instrumental firmness with sensory firmness, dry mass with sensory wateriness, and maltose content with sensory sweet and sweet potato-like flavour. The varieties were clustered into three groups. Consumer acceptability for eating quality correlated with maltose content, dry mass and sweet flavour. Conclusion: Chemical and instrumental measurements were identified to evaluate key attributes and will be useful in the intermediate phases of sweet potato varietal development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Lamprecht S.C.,Agricultural Research Council Plant Protection Research Institute | Tewoldemedhin Y.T.,Agricultural Research Council Plant Protection Research Institute | Calitz F.J.,Agricultural Research Council Biometry Unit | Mazzola M.,Tree Fruit Research Laboratory
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evaluated under glasshouse conditions. Screening included the examination of resistance of eight canola and eight lupin cultivars/selections to damping-off and hypocotyl/root rot caused by the multinucleate Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1, 2-2, 4 and 11. All canola cultivars were highly susceptible to AG-2-1, but Rocket, Spectrum and 44C11 were more resistant than the other cultivars. Spectrum and 44C73 were also more resistant to AG-4 than the other canola cultivars. On lupin, R. solani AG-2-2 and 4 were most virulent, and the cultivar Cedara 6150 and selection E16 were most resistant to AG-2-2; Cedara 6150, E16, Mandelup and Quilinock were more resistant to AG-4 than the other cultivars/selections. The Lupinus luteus selections, E80.1.1.2 and E82. 1. 1 were most susceptible to AG-2-2, 4 and 11. Seed treatment with the fungicides Cruiser OSR (a.i. difenconazole, fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M, thiamethoxam) and SA-combination (a. i. iprodione, metalaxyl, thiram) significantly increased survival of canola and lupin seedlings, decreased hypocotyl/root rot and improved the percentage of healthy seedlings, with the SA-combination being significantly more effective than Cruiser OSR. Application of the binucleate Rhizoctonia AGs (A, Bo, K and I) significantly increased the survival of lupin seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG-2-2 and 4, and AG-I and K significantly improved survival of canola in the presence of AG-4. This is the first report of the potential of binucleate AGs to protect canola and lupin seedlings against infection by multinucleate AGs. © 2011 KNPV. Source


Joubert M.E.,Vine and Wine Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council | Wooldridge J.,Vine and Wine Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council | Booyse M.,Agricultural Research Council Biometry Unit
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

A survey of plantation-grown Cyclopia subternata showed that average concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the new top growth of mature seedlings and cuttings were 1.59, 0.09, 0.62, 0.32, and 0.17%, respectively. Respective removal rates of these elements at each harvest averaged 13.1, 0.7, 5.1, 2.6, and 1.4 g plant-1. These quantities were equivalent to. 28% to 45% of the total element in the plant. Concentrations in the top growth of sodium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and boron averaged, respectively, 1459, 34, 143, 7, 9, and 30 mg kg-1. Old top growth dry mass and root dry mass increased with time. Peak new top growth yields from C. subternata plants derived from seedlings and cuttings differed by only 2.2%. At peak production, new growth constituted 15% of total seedling dry mass and 21% of total cutting dry mass. © Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Joubert M.E.,Vine and Wine Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council | Wooldridge J.,Vine and Wine Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council | Booyse M.,Agricultural Research Council Biometry Unit
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Results from a five year survey of honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) in the Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa, showed that concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the top growth of mature plants grown from seedlings were 1.29, 0.05, 0.53, 0.22 and 0.09%, respectively. Removal rates at each harvest were 8.23, 0.32, 3.38, 1.40 and 0.57 g of the respective elements per plant. These quantities were equivalent to 48% to 61% of the total mass of each element in the plant. Concentrations in the top growth of sodium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and boron were, respectively, 1423, 16, 172, 5, 12 and 23 mg kg-1. Seedlings of C. genistoides reached their peak mass around five years after planting, and attained higher dry masses in plantations than in the open veld. Mature, plantation-grown C. genistoides plants yielded around 638 g of top growth dry mass per plant at each harvest.© Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Lamprecht S.C.,Agricultural Research Council Plant Protection Research Institute | Tewoldemedhin Y.T.,Agricultural Research Council Plant Protection Research Institute | Botha W.J.,Agricultural Research Council Plant Protection Research Institute | Calitz F.J.,Agricultural Research Council Biometry Unit
Plant Disease | Year: 2011

Thirty-three isolates of the Fusarium graminearum species complex obtained from diseased maize (Zea mays) crowns and roots in the Winterton district, KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa were identified to species level. Their pathogenicity and virulence to maize 'PHI 32D96B' seedlings were determined under glasshouse conditions, with seedling survival and growth and crown and root rot as criteria. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3-O-acetyltransferase (Tri101) gene region sequences revealed the presence of F. boothii (2 isolates), F. graminearum sensu stricto (26 isolates), and F. meridionale (5 isolates) in the F. graminearum species complex associated with diseased maize crowns and roots. Pathogenicity results showed that F. boothii was the most and F. meridionale the least virulent of the three species. F. boothii and F. graminearum sensu stricto significantly reduced survival of seedlings and all three species caused significant reduction in growth and significantly more crown and root rot than the control (uninoculated). This is the first report of F. boothii, F. graminearum sensu stricto, and F. meridionale associated with diseased maize crowns and roots and their pathogenicity and virulence as soilborne pathogens on maize seedlings in South Africa. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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