Agricultural Research Corporation ARC

Sudan

Agricultural Research Corporation ARC

Sudan
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Bashir E.M.A.,University of Hohenheim | Ali A.M.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Melchinger A.E.,University of Hohenheim | Parzies H.K.,University of Hohenheim | Haussmann B.I.G.,University of Hohenheim
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2014

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is an important staple cereal cultivated in the arid and semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa, regions severely affected by malnutrition. Knowledge about the extent of genetic variability and patterns of agro-morphological variation in local germplasm from a target region is an important prerequisite for efficient crop improvement. To assess the potential of Sudanese pearl millet landraces as sources of desirable traits for pearl millet improvement including biofortification, a total of 225 accessions were evaluated in Sudan at three locations for agro-morphological traits and at one location for grain mineral nutrient contents (Fe, Zn, Ca, P, K, Mg, Mn, S, Na, Cu and β-carotene). Genetic variation was highly significant, but relatively limited for some agro-morphological traits (62-78Â d to flowering, 119-188Â cm plant height and 16-34Â cm panicle length), pointing to the potential usefulness of a targeted diversification for these traits. Self-pollinated grain micronutrient contents showed a wide variation: 19.7-86.4Â mg/kg for Fe and 13.5-82.4Â mg/kg for Zn. Significant and positive correlations among most of the nutritional traits were observed; therefore, enhancement of the concentrations of some nutrients will lead to the improvement of other related nutrients. No significant associations were observed between the nutritional and agro-morphological traits, indicating good prospects for simultaneous improvement of both trait categories. No clear patterns of geographic differentiation for specific traits were detected for the Sudanese pearl millet. Nutrient-rich accessions were identified and those with acceptable agro-morphological traits are encouraging materials for future pearl millet biofortification programmes in Sudan. © 2013 NIAB.


Bashir E.M.A.,University of Hohenheim | Bashir E.M.A.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Ali A.M.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Ali A.M.,International Atomic Energy Agency | And 4 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

Landraces are considered as storehouses of valuable genetic diversity. Understanding the structure of this diversity and identification of distinct clusters with complementary traits is an important goal for a sustained and successful pearl millet breeding program. In this study a collection of 214 pearl millet accessions from different geographical regions of Sudan, and 11 accessions from West Africa, were assessed for their genetic diversity using 30 simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) and evaluated for 15 agro-morphological traits. The diversity of the studied pearl millet landraces was demonstrated by a large number (400) of detected SSR alleles. The average polymorphic information content (PIC), gene diversity and observed heterozygosity of the 30 SSRs were 0.77, 0.82 and 0.72 respectively. A total of seven phylogenic groups with variable sizes were identified. Low correlation was observed between the agro-morphological matrix and the genetic matrix (r = 0.20). The average PIC values obtained across the seven linkage groups varied significantly. Weak genetic differentiations were observed among the geographical regions, suggesting a high seed and pollen-mediated gene flow among the regions. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that the variation of pearl millet accessions within the regions was much higher than among the regions. The large divergence observed among the landraces of this study is promising for developing new cultivars and for development of heterotic groups which can be used to develop population and hybrid varieties with higher degrees of heterozygosity and therefore hybrid vigor and stability, as well as to intensify yield production in the harsh production environments of Sudan. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Abdelhalim T.S.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Abdelhalim T.S.,University of Kassel | Finckh M.R.,University of Kassel | Babiker A.G.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Oehl F.,Ecological Systems
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

A survey was conducted in 13 selected crops in the White Nile state, Central Sudan, to assess root colonization, spore densities and species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) based on morphological aspects. For each crop, four samples were taken from one field. Additionally, an attempt was made to study the relationship between soil physico-chemical properties and AMF colonization rates, spore densities, species richness and other selected AMF diversity indices. The mean percentage of AMF colonization across all crops was 34%, ranging from 19% to 50%. The spore densities retrieved from the different rhizospheres were relatively high, varying from 344 to 1222 spores per 100 g dry soil with a mean of 798. There was no correlation between AMF spore densities in the soil and the root colonization rates. A total of 42 morphologically classifiable species representing 14 genera of AMF were detected without correlation between species richness in the soil and the spore densities. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on the similarity among AMF communities with respect to crop species overall showed that species compositions were relatively similar to the highest dissimilarities of about 25% dividing three of the four mango samples and the four sorghum samples from all other samples. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Abdalla S.B.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Abdalla S.B.,University of Kassel | Predotova M.,University of Kassel | Gebauer J.,Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2012

The role of urban agriculture (UA) for the supply of fresh vegetables, fruits and meat for local markets is well known. The periodically flooded Gerif soils on the River Nile banks in the core of Khartoum city harbour vegetable gardens that supply perishable leafy vegetables with a short life cycle. In an effort to assess their sustainability and possible negative environmental impact we used a horizontal balance approach to determine the nutrient use efficiency of four intensively cropped UA gardens. Two of the gardens were located in downstream lowlands (L1 and L2) and the other two belonged to the upstream highlands (H1 and H2). The river sediments contributed on average 873 kg nitrogen (N), 6.5 kg phosphorus (P), 6.8 kg potassium (K) and 8,317 kg carbon (C) per hectare in lowland gardens, while only 289, 1.6, 2.5 and 1,938 kg N, P, K and C ha -1 reached the highlands. The farmers' management in all four gardens resulted in horizontal N and C surpluses of 75-342 kg N ha -1 year -1 and 798-6,412 kg C ha -1 year -1, in contrast to P and K for which negative balances up to -45 kg P ha -1 year -1 and -583 kg K ha -1 year -1 were recorded. While the River Nile floods as important N and C source contribute significantly to soil fertility maintenance, the negative P and K balances call for a better integration of UA gardening with livestock husbandry and the regular addition of animal manure in these cropping systems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Malik A.A.Y.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Karut K.,Cukurova University
Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi | Year: 2012

Populations changes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitism status were monitored on different host-plants in the Çukurova Region (Yüreǧir and Karataş districts) in 2008 and 2009. Samples were taken from cotton, cucumber, eggplant and soybean and pest numbers were counted in the laboratory. Each year, lower numbers of B. tabaci occurred in early July and increased to higher densities in August and September. Likewise, low parasitism rates by Eretmocerus mundus Mercet 1931 and Encarsia lutea (Masi 1909) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) occurred in July and peaked in August and September. Er. mundus was observed to be more efficient on cotton, eggplant and soybean, but less on cucumber. The parasitism rates by Er. mundus on all host-plants were higher than those of En. lutea. While the highest parasitism rate of Er. mundus was found on soybean (73.94%) in the Yüreǧir district, that of En. lutea was on eggplant (24.3%) in the Karataş district in 2008. In 2009, while the highest parasitism rate by Er. mundus was on cotton (50.0%) in the Yüreǧir district, that of En. lutea was found on eggplant (20.0%) in the same district. These parasitism levels confirmed that Er. mundus and En. lutea are important parasitoids of B. tabaci in the Çukurova Region.


In this study, the success of single and combined releases of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) (Hemiptera: Miridae) aganist Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: (Aleyrodidae) were determined on greenhouse grown tomato plants that planted in net cages. The studies were conducted in spring growing seasons of the years 2009 and 2010. Experiments were established with four different treatments namely B. tabaci single (control), M. melanotoma single, E. mundus single, M. melanotoma+E. mundus combined releases with 3 replications (cage). In both years the B. tabaci, E. mundus and M. melanotoma were released 20, 6 and 0.5/plants, respectively. In order to determine population development of B. tabaci and E. mundus, leaf samples were taken at weekly intervals. In addition, numbers of immature and adult stages of M. melanotoma were counted by using visual control method on whole parts of 15 plants in each predator released cages. In the parasitoids released cages, the mean numbers of immature B. tabaci were not reached higher than 0.56 and 2.82 individuals/cm2 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. These numbers were found to be lower than control and M. melanotoma single releases. The highest immature B. tabaci numbers were determined in control treatments as 51.10 and 31.12 per cm2 in both years. Although M. melanotoma single release treatment reduced the whitefly numbers statistically compared to control treatment, it was not succeed as much as E. mundus. The results of this study showed that B. tabaci populations could be control without any insecticide treatments in greenhouse by using biological control programs that will be consisted with E. mundus and M. melantoma in Turkey.


The aim of this study was to determine biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius 1889) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) collected from different host plants in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons from Adana (Balcali) by using molecular identification methods. Samples were collected from cucumber, eggplants, cotton and soybean grown in Balcali at different dates. RFLP and SCAR-PCR methods were used to determine B. tabaci biotypes. All samples collected form cotton was determined as Q biotype. B biotype was determined only from four samples of totally collected 18 samples in 2008 while from one sample of totally collected 13 samples in 2009. Q type was determined as dominant in Balcali.


Omer S.O.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Abdalla A.W.H.,University of Khartoum | Mohammed M.H.,Cereal Research Center | Singh M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Genotypic and phenotypic correlations are necessary for constructing indirect selection indices. Bayesian analysis, therefore, was applied to obtain posterior distributions of the correlations, and the estimates were compared with those under a frequentist approach. Three a priori distributions for standard deviation components based on uniform distribution, positive values from t- distribution, and positive values from normal distribution were examined, while a priori distribution for correlation was taken as a uniform distribution. The prior based on uniform was best found using the deviation information criterion. Data from sorghum genotypes evaluated in complete blocks in 2010-2011 in Northern Kordofan, Sudan, resulted in a posterior mean of 0.48 for genotypic correlation between seed yield and seed weight with posterior standard deviation of 0.24. Due to a wider inference base and the fact that it makes use of prior information, we recommend the Bayesian approach in estimation of genotypic correlations. © 2016, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All Rights Reserved.


Omer S.O.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Abdalla A.W.H.,University of Khartoum | Mohammed M.H.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC | Singh M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science | Year: 2015

Genotype × Environment Interaction (GEI) plays an important role in identifying genotypes for high and stable yield for broad and specific adaptations. It continues to be a challenging issue among plant breeders and agronomists when conducting crop performance trials across diverse and unpredictable environments. Normally, the analysis of GEI is carried out under the frequentist paradigm, even though ongoing crop improvement programs gather information on genotypic and experimental error parameters that could be incorporated using a Bayesian approach. The objective of this paper was to estimate, for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in Sudanese environments, genotypic and GEI variances, heritability, genetic advance attributable to selection, and genotype means using Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Eighteen genotypes of sorghum were evaluated in randomized complete block designs with four replicates in six environments, during 2009/10 - 2011/12, at South-Gedarif and North-Gedarif in Sudan. Priors were obtained from a previous set of multi-environment trials in sorghum during 2006/7 - 2008/9 at Rahab, Sudan. Estimates of heritability and genetic advance under the Bayesian approach were higher than those under the frequentist approach. Precision of means of genotypes and heritability estimates were also higher under the Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach provides a wider coverage for statistical inference and incorporates prior information with the likelihood of current data. For this approach, an illustrative step-by-step procedure is presented and recommended for use in statistical analysis of crop genotypes from multi-environment trials. © CBCS 2015.


Mohamed M.Y.,Agricultural Research Corporation ARC
Helia | Year: 2010

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a new edible oil crop in Sudan. Many production constraints are responsible for fluctuation in its production and productivity. The main constraint is a lack of adapted, improved, highyield sunflower varieties. Farmers depend on imported seeds, which are usually unavailable and expensive. To reduce the cost of the seed and ensure seed supply at the optimum time, ten single-cross sunflower hybrids (SFH32, SFH36, SFH37, SFH310, SFH313, SFH314, SFH341, SFH345, SFH302 and SFH325) and the hybrid Hysun-33 (the check) were evaluated for yield potential and yield components. The experiment was laid-out in a randomized complete block design with three replications carried over five irrigated locations during the winter season of 2008/2009. There was considerable variation for yield and its components among the hybrids and locations. Significant differences were observed for hybrids (G), locations (E) and G × E interaction. All the genotypes gave high seed and oil yields under irrigated conditions. Three hybrids, SFH310, SFH313 and SFH341, performed better than Hysun-33 and the other genotypes across five environments. Stability analysis identified SFH310, SFH313 and SFH341 as the most stable hybrids for seed and oil yields, since their regression coefficients were close to the value of one (bi=1) and had the lowest deviation from regression (S-2di). In contrast, hybrids such as SFH32 and SFH37, with regression coefficients greater than one, were regarded as sensitive to environmental changes for seed and oil yields. The three promising hybrids were released last June for commercial production.

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