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Hays, KS, United States

Wang S.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang K.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang K.,China Agricultural University | Michaud J.P.,Agricultural Research Center Hays | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2014

Cocccinellid beetles are largely diurnal species that are known to utilize visual cues in foraging and reproduction and to respond in specific ways to various light conditions. The present study evaluated the mating behavior and reproductive performance of Propylea japonica (Thunberg), a species indigenous to Asia, under various conditions of light intensity, photoperiod, and wavelength. Video-recording was used to continuously observe mating pairs for 24 h and a night vision system was employed to record nocturnal activity. Subsequently, males were removed and eggs were collected from females for 10 days and held under the same photic conditions to determine their fertility. The frequency and duration of copula varied among photic regimes in all experiments and tended to be negatively correlated, but more copulations occurred in photophase than in scotophase. White light at 1500 lux yielded higher egg production when compared to other light intensities, but egg fertility was higher at lower light intensities and highest in complete darkness, a result inferred to reflect egg sensitivity to light. Both fecundity and fertility were greater when 1500 lux white light was provided in a 16L : 8D photoperiod compared to shorter days. Green light yielded the highest net fertility compared to other wavelengths. A scheme is proposed to optimize photic conditions for reproductive adults of P. japonica and their eggs in colonies mass-reared for biological control applications. Source

Ameri M.,Shahid Chamran University | Rasekh A.,Shahid Chamran University | Michaud J.P.,Agricultural Research Center Hays
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2014

This study tested effects of maternal body size on foraging behavior and progeny development in a thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Small and large wasps were reared from first and second instar hosts [black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae)], respectively, and each was provided with a patch (bean leaf disk) containing either 15 small (second instar) or 15 large (fourth instar) hosts for a 30-min foraging period. Neither body size nor host size affected time allocation to various behaviors within a patch, but second instar aphids produced significantly more mummies than fourth instars. The preferred attack orientation was from the side of the aphid, suggesting wasps were sensitive to the risk of smearing with cornicle secretions. Few wasps developed in fourth instar hosts, suggesting later host instars were somewhat resistant to parasitism. Second instar hosts, the most suitable stage for L. fabarum development, relied more on defensive behavior, specifically kicking and secreting cornicle droplets. Large wasps were more likely to elicit a double cornicle secretion, indicating that aphids graded their response to the size of the attacker. Larger wasps were also more likely to be smeared with cornicle secretion, suggesting they were more vulnerable than small wasps. Although small wasps had smaller eggs than large wasps, there was no effect of maternal egg size on the size of progeny. However, daughters of small females emerged with larger egg loads than daughters of large mothers, and their eggs tended to be slightly smaller, although not significantly. Regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between maternal egg size and progeny developmental time for small and large wasps, and between maternal egg size and progeny egg load for small wasps. These results confirm maternal effects of body size in an aphid parasitoid, and reveal that vulnerability to host behavioral defenses is also body size dependent. © 2014 The Netherlands Entomological Society. Source

Prasad P.V.V.,Kansas State University | Djanaguiraman M.,Kansas State University | Perumal R.,Agricultural Research Center Hays | Ciampitti I.A.,Kansas State University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] yield formation is severely affected by high temperature stress during reproductive stages. This study pursues to (i) identify the growth stage(s) most sensitive to high temperature stress during reproductive development, (ii) determine threshold temperature and duration of high temperature stress that decreases floret fertility and individual grain weight, and (iii) quantify impact of high daytime temperature during floret development, flowering and grain filling on reproductive traits and grain yield under field conditions. Periods between 10 and 5 d before anthesis; and between 5 d before- and 5 d after-anthesis were most sensitive to high temperatures causing maximum decreases in floret fertility. Mean daily temperatures >25°C quadratically decreased floret fertility (reaching 0% at 37°C) when imposed at the start of panicle emergence. Temperatures ranging from 25 to 37°C quadratically decreased individual grain weight when imposed at the start of grain filling. Both floret fertility and individual grain weights decreased quadratically with increasing duration (0–35 d or 49 d during floret development or grain filling stage, respectively) of high temperature stress. In field conditions, imposition of temperature stress (using heat tents) during floret development or grain filling stage also decreased floret fertility, individual grain weight, and grain weight per panicle. © 2015 Prasad, Djanaguiraman, Perumal and Ciampitti. Source

Moghbeli Gharaei A.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Ziaaddini M.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Jalali M.A.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Michaud J.P.,Agricultural Research Center Hays
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2014

Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. bacteria that cause citrus greening, a disease of worldwide importance. Olfactometry was employed to test responses of D. citri to odours from intact citrus plants (Mexican lime, Citrus aurantifolia, sour orange, Citrus aurantium, Marsh grapefruit, Citrus paradisi and Valencia orange, Citrus sinensis), citrus plants previously infested with D. citri, and odours of conspecifics including nymphs, adult insects of same and opposite sex, and their products (honeydew), both alone and in combination. In contrast to other studies, psyllids of both sexes were attracted to volatiles of undamaged Mexican lime leaves, whereas undamaged grapefruit attracted only females, and leaves of Valencia and sour orange did not attract either sex. All four plant species attracted female psyllids when previously infested, but only Mexican lime and sour orange-attracted males. Thus, Citrus species appear to vary in the production of both constituitive and induced volatiles that attract adult psyllids. Volatiles emitted by nymphs did not attract either sex, but psyllid honeydew was attractive to males, likely due to female pheromone residues. Males oriented to the odour of females, whereas the reverse was not true, and neither males nor females oriented to same-sex volatiles. The addition of conspecific cues (adults, nymphs or honeydew) did not increase female attraction to previously infested leaves, but male response was increased by the presence of adults and honeydew, regardless of plant species. Thus, female psyllids appear to orient more strongly to volatiles of plant origin, whereas males respond more strongly to cues emanating from females and conspecific excretions. These results suggest that female psyllids drive the initial colonization of host plants, whereas males orient to females and infested plants. Identification of the specific volatiles involved may permit their use in monitoring and management of this pest. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Jalali M.A.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Michaud J.P.,Agricultural Research Center Hays
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

A laboratory study was conducted to examine tritrophic effects on the suitability of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae (Blackman & Eastop), as prey for the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L.), when the aphids were reared on either sweet pepper or tobacco. Significant host plant-aphid interactions were evident for every component of development (juvenile survival, developmental time, adult mass at emergence) and reproduction (preoviposition period, fecundity, fertility). By almost all measures, the suitability of each aphid species was improved by rearing on its host plant of origin and diminished by rearing on the alternative host plant. The symmetry of the interactions are suggestive of both positive and negative host plant effects on aphid suitability as prey. Whereas M. p. nicotianae may be better able than M. persicae to detoxify the nicotine that is likely responsible for the reduced suitability of M. persicae when reared on tobacco, it appears to have lower nutritive value for A. bipunctata than M. persicae when reared on pepper. Thus, population parameters (R 0, r m, λ and DT) derived from performance data indicated that M. persicae reared on sweet pepper was the most suitable prey and that the same species reared on tobacco was the least suitable, with other host plant-aphid combinations intermediate. Source

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