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Addisu B.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Mesfin B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Kindu M.,ILRI | Duncan A.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The study was carried out in June 2010 in selected villages of Amhara region of Ethiopia, representing three levels of market quality (high, medium and low), with the general objective of developing a systematic understanding of the links between market opportunities and productivity increases in livestock, with a focus on dairy production. The present report focuses on production aspects of dairy intensification in Amhara region. Findings showed that feeding of concentrates for dairy cattle was more prominent in high market quality sites compared to medium and low market quality sites, which indicated the level of feed intensification as the market quality improved. The contribution of grazing to total diet was higher for indigenous than crossbred cows. Indigenous cows were allowed to graze freely throughout the year and were expected to meet their feed requirement from grazing, especially in the wet and harvest (crop aftermath grazing) seasons, and supplemented during the dry season when the condition of grazing pasture deteriorated. Crossbred cows that demanded better nutrition for better milk production were only allowed to graze for a limited number of hours in a day when grazing pasture was in better condition. They were mostly kept indoors during the dry season to meet their feed requirements through stall feeding. The proportion of crossbred cows exceeded that of indigenous cows in high market quality sites but the reverse applied in medium and low market quality sites. Milk yield data indicated that there is room for increasing average productivity by improving management practices. Due consideration should be given to alleviate the problems in reproductive and milk yield performance to increase productivity and improve dairy-derived income. Source

Andargae Y.E.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Tagele S.B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Girsil T.S.,Melkassa Agricultural Research Center | Woldemariam S.S.,University of Gondar
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

The pesticide efficacy of locally available seven botanicals "Gime" (Chenopodium ambrosioides), "Ayderke" (Jatropha curcas), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Melia (Melia azadirach), "Chobe" (Cisus rotonifolia), "Kelewa" (Maesa lanceolata) and "Antharfa" at a rate of 4% weight by weight was evaluated for the control of cowpea bruchid using 200 g cowpea seeds in 500 cm3 volume jar in 2010 and 2011 under laboratory condition at Sirinka Agricultural Research Centre. The combined analysis showed that "Gime" (both leaf and seed) had high speed of pesticide effect as it showed significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality (84 and 71%, respectively) as to the standard check Malathion 5% dust (100%) in the first day of adult mortality count. "Antharfa" and "Ayderke" also have shown significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality as to Malathion in the third and fifth day of adult mortality count, respectively. In the seventh day, all botanicals showed significantly higher per cent of adult mortality as compared to untreated check. "Gime" leaf and seed powder, "Ayderke" seed, Neem seed and "Antharfa" leaf powders significantly reduced the number of progeny emergence per day as compared to all other treatments. Moreover, these botanicals were effective in reducing per cent seed damage (0.00, 0.00, 0.57, 5.86 and 10.86%, respectively) and storage loss (0.00, 0.00, 0.073, 1.02 and 2.27%, respectively). Gime (both leaf and seed powder), "Ayderke" seed and Neem seed are locally available, simple for preparation and environmentally friendly. Therefore, these three botanicals can be recommended to satisfy the demand for organic food and save the seed damage and yield loss of cowpea caused by Callosobruchus maculates and bean bruchid (Zabrotes subfasciatus) which has similar biology with Callosobruchus maculatus. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Shewayrga H.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Sopade P.A.,University of Queensland
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2011

Background: Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley.Methods: A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity.Results: According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation.Conclusions: Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. © 2011 Shewayrga and Sopade; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Deribe B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Taye M.,Bahir Dar University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91±0.04, 6.84±0.19, 9.13±0.31 and 16.42±1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4±2.30 and 29.3±4.32 g day-1, respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Tilahun M.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Kefelegn K.,Haramaya University | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

The objective of this experiment was to compare the feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, and slaughter characteristics of local genotypes of small ruminants in the central highlands of Ethiopia with Boer goat (B) and Dorper sheep (D) blood levels of 0 %, 25 %, and 50 %. Male goats (27; 6-9 months of age) and sheep (27; 3-5 months) were housed individually in confinement during 90-day experiments. Grass hay (6 % crude protein and 64 % or 67 % neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum together with concentrate (46 % noug seed cake, 28 % wheat bran, 24 % sorghum grain, and 2 % salt) supplemented at 2 % of their body weight. Initial body weight was 18.1, 20.8, and 24.9 kg for Local, 25 % B, and 50 % B, respectively, and 14.8, 20.3, and 17.9 kg for Local, 25 % D, and 50 % D, respectively. Total dry matter (DM) intake by goats ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B, and hay intake was greatest for 50 % B. Intake of hay and total DM by sheep ranked Local < 50 % D < 25 % D. Average daily gain by goats was greatest for 50 % B and by sheep was least for Local. Empty body weight of goats at slaughter and carcass weights ranked Local < 25 % B < 50 % B. Body and carcass weights of sheep were lowest for Local. In addition to the difference between 25 % B and Local goats, these results clearly show potential for greater meat yield with the 50 % than 25 % level of B. The findings also depict considerable opportunity to increase meat production by crossbreeding with D, although greater benefit was not realized with 50 % than 25 % D. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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