Agricultural Research and Extension Unit

Quatre Bornes, Mauritius

Agricultural Research and Extension Unit

Quatre Bornes, Mauritius
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Howells M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Hermann S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Welsch M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Bazilian M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 11 more authors.
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2013

Land, energy and water are our most precious resources, but the manner and extent to which they are exploited contributes to climate change. Meanwhile, the systems that provide these resources are themselves highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Efficient resource management is therefore of great importance, both for mitigation and for adaptation purposes. We postulate that the lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads to inconsistent strategies and inefficient use of resources. We present CLEWs (climate, land-use, energy and water strategies), a new paradigm for resource assessments that we believe can help to remedy some of these shortcomings. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Shirazi M.U.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture NIA | Gyamfi J.A.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Ram T.,Agricultural Research and Extension Unit | Bachiri H.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique En | And 7 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

A pot culture experiment was conducted in glass house at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria to select suitable drought tolerant wheat genotype using carbon isotopes discrimination technique. Four wheat genotypes viz., LU-26s, Bhittai, Roshan, Taifu, were tested. There were two treatments. i. Control (normal irrigation) and ii. Drought (@ 30 % field capacity of the control treatment). Drought treatment was imposed after two weeks of germination. The experiment was continued up to 10 weeks after germination and was terminated at flowering stage. The data was recorded in terms of plant height, number of tillers, shoot dry weight and carbon isotopic ratio (δ). Results showed that there was a significant decrease in all the growth parameters. The decrease was also significant among the genotypes. The genotypes LU-26s was found to have best performance under drought condition, with minimum decrease in the growth parameters i.e., plant height, number of tillers and shoot dry weight. High corbon isotopes discrimination (CID) values were also observed in genotype LU-26s, showing close positive correlation between SDW and CID. It is therefore concluded that carbon isotopes discrimination can be an important criterion for the selection of wheat genotypes for drought prone areas.

Welsch M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Hermann S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Howells M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Rogner H.H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 12 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Climate, Energy, Water and Land-use Systems (CLEWS) are closely integrated. Yet, most related decision and policy making occurs in disparate institutional entities, informed by relatively disconnected assessments of the individual resource systems. This paper presents the added value of an integrated analytical assessment approach. In doing so, it explicitly values various interdependencies and interactions between CLEWS primarily from an energy sector perspective. The island state of Mauritius was identified as a useful case study given its diverse climate, its increasing water stresses, and its policy focus on reshaping agricultural land-use and reducing fossil fuel imports. Several scenarios to 2030 were defined and analysed to demonstrate the tensions around the CLEWS nexus. Results from an assessment of the energy system with no modelled interlinkages to land-use, energy and water systems are first presented. Then, these are compared to those from an integrated CLEWS assessment. This serves to highlight important dynamics that would have been overlooked without such a systems approach. As an example, the added value of this approach is clearly demonstrated when rainfall reductions are taken into account, and where future land-use changes might occur. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gungoosingh-Bunwaree A.,Agricultural Research and Extension Unit | Contaldo N.,University of Bologna | Paltrinieri S.,University of Bologna | Benimadhu S.P.,University of Bologna | Bertaccini A.,University of Bologna
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2011

Using PCR and RFLP techniques, 16SrXII and 16SrV phytoplasma groups were identified from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) leaf samples collected in Mauritius. The most frequent symptoms observed on okra plants were leaf yellowing, leaf distortion, curling and overall stunting. The phytoplasma infection was widely distributed across the island and a high incidence of 75 to 100% was recorded at inspected sites. This is the first report of the presence of phytoplasmas in okra in Mauritius.

Gungoosingh-Bunwaree A.,Agricultural Research and Extension Unit | Contaldo N.,University of Bologna | Mejia J.F.,University of Bologna | Paltrinieri S.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

An island wide survey carried over 18 months across 79 tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) plantations in 30 localities on 12 varieties revealed that symptoms related to phytoplasma-associated diseases are widespread in this species in Mauritius. Typical witches, broom and stunting and/or yellowing were observed in 74.6 % of fields visited. Phytoplasmas belonging to three groups: stolbur (16SrXII), aster yellows (16SrI) and elm yellows (16SrV) were identified in tomato leaf and fruit samples by nested-PCR assays followed by RFLP and/or sequencing analyses. Mixed phytoplasma and virus infections (PVY, TYLCV) were detected in 28.8 % of symptomatic sample tested. Survey results indicate a widespread distribution of all identified phytoplasmas across local tomato plantations (pathogens were detected in 8 out of 9 districts) irrespective of the variety grown. Use of insect-proof nets for seedling production, avoid re-planting a new tomato crop in the vicinity of phytoplasma infected ones and uprooting of symptomatic plants are the recommended measures to reduce the pathogen dissemination and resulted to be effective in reducing the pathogen presence in the Country. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Jhurree-Dussoruth B.,Agricultural Research and Extension Unit | Kallydin H.,Agricultural Research and Extension Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

With the reduction in both the price and quota of sugar for world export, sugarcane growers in Mauritius are shifting to large-scale banana plantation. As suckers from existing old plantations represent a high risk of Cosmopolites sordidus and viral disease transmission, the demand for disease-free, tissue-cultured banana plantlets is increasing. However, the price of such plantlets from commercial laboratories is too high (about 3-4 times more expensive than suckers) due to -among others-the reliance on imported potting mixes for the weaning of plantlets. With the objective of finding low-cost potting mixes for weaning, a trial was set up using soil and manure mix, locally available by-products from the sugar industry (scum, flyash and bagassse), cocopeat (after use from soil-less cultures) and imported jiffy pellets. After deflasking, banana plantlets (2.5 cm tall) of 'Petite Naine' (AAA, Cavendish) were placed in eleven different potting mixes: (1) Scum, (2) Flyash, (3) Flyash + Scum (2:3), (4) Bagasse + Flyash (1:1), (5) Flyash + Scum (1:1), (6) Flyash + Scum (3:2), (7) Flyash + Scum (7:3), (8) cocopeat, (9) jiffy pellets, (10) non-sterile soil + cow manure (1:1), and (11) autoclaved soil + cow manure (1:1). The plantlets were covered with transparent plastic cover to maintain humidity for 10 days. The number of dead plantlets, plantlet height and leaf emission were recorded. Mortality was negligible indicating that the non-sterile mixes did not cause any disease incidence. Plantlet development was fastest in sterile soil + manure mix and slowest in cocopeat and flyash/bagasse mixture. A low-cost option for weaning, which could reduce hardening costs by over 90%, was thus developed.

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