Agricultural Research and Education Center

Mazandaran, Iran

Agricultural Research and Education Center

Mazandaran, Iran

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Bohner A.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Wimmer B.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Graiss W.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Kandolf M.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2016

Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leaved dock) is one of the most troublesome weeds in intensively managed grassland. This study investigated the potential of biochar (BC), produced from woody green waste residues, to support its control. For this purpose, a pot experiment was conducted out of doors in Austria. It was expected that R. obtusifolius could be controlled by reducing available N content in the soil. R. obtusifolius and two grass species, Lolium multiflorum and Dactylis glomerata, were grown from seeds in monocultures, respectively. Moreover, R. obtusifolius was grown in mixtures with L. multiflorum. Due to a pure BC addition to soil (3% by wt), the concentrations of N, S, Ca and Mg in the shoot biomass decreased relative to the control in all three species, suggesting a dilution effect. The K concentration, however, increased only in R. obtusifolius, indicating its high absorption capacity for K. In R. obtusifolius, K rather than N was the most growth-limiting nutrient element. The K level in soil appears to be important in controlling its distribution. To prevent Rumex infestation and/or to reduce existing infestations, a high soil K supply should be avoided. The average shoot dry weight of all three species was significantly higher when BC was applied (by 247%, 65% and 108%, in R. obtusifolius, L. multiflorum and D. glomerata, respectively), presumably because of a better K supply in soil. R. obtusifolius responded to interspecific competition with L. multiflorum by a densitydependent reduction of its shoot growth. BC did not decrease the competitive ability of Rumex in mixtures with Lolium. It is concluded that the addition of woody green waste BC to soil is no successful strategy for controlling R. obtusifolius in grassland. However, the results of this study can serve as a basis for preventive measures to Rumex control. © 2016, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.


Grill L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Ringdorfer F.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Baumung R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Fuerst-Waltl B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

Aims of the study were to evaluate the routine ultrasound scanning plus subjective muscle scoring system for meat sheep in Austria in terms of (1) their ability to predict carcass quality and composition, (2) the repeatability of ultrasound scanning and (3) a comparison of three anatomical scanning sites. Lambs of six breeds (n= 189; mean bodyweight 39 kg) were scored for the muscling of their shoulder, back and hindquarter and were scanned with an ultrasound device for back fat and longissimus dorsi muscle depth lateral of the spine at 10th/11th (US1) and 13th (US2) thoracic vertebrae as well as at 3rd/4th (US3) lumbar vertebrae. Each ultrasound picture was taken twice within a few minutes to check on within operator repeatability. After slaughter the carcasses were classified according to the EUROP system and back fat and muscle depth were measured on a carcass cross section, and 36 carcasses were dissected to lean meat, fat and bone to evaluate carcass composition. Relationships between carcass and dissection traits and routine performance testing traits (live weight, fat and muscle depth at US3) were evaluated based on partial regression coefficients additionally considering breed, sex (carcass traits only) and birth type as fixed effects. Further, fat and muscle depth at scan sites US1 and US2 were fitted alternatively and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. Correlations between ultrasonic and carcass measures ranged from r= 0.60 (muscle depth at US1 and EUROP conformation class) to r= 0.84 (muscle depth at US1 and muscle depth at carcass). Repeatabilities for muscle and backfat thickness ranged from 0.90 to 0.95. The results support the usefulness of the currently routine ultrasound scans as relatively easy method to predict carcass composition in live lambs of different breeds. Muscle scans are valuable to estimate amount of carcass lean and EUROP conformation class, but fat scans have greater power to predict the fattiness of the carcass as well as lean percentage. Subjective muscle scoring of live animals seems to be mainly influenced by the fattiness of the animal. The comparison of three anatomical scanning sites did not give definite results. US1 seems to be favourable for estimating muscle depth, for the prediction of lean and in terms of repeatability whereas US2 and US3 had small advantages in scanning fat depth and in the prediction of EUROP classification and carcass fat. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Bohner A.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Unterweger P.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Rohrer V.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Sobotik M.,Phytosociological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

For a successful cultivation of V. myrtillus, its habitat requirements have to be known. Especially, the pH dependent soil chemical properties in the root-room are of utmost importance. Therefore, soil analyses in contrasting habitat types and plant analyses were done. Differences and similarities in the mineral nutrient contents in leaves and stems of V. myrtillus collected from different habitat types were investigated. V. myrtillus grows on very acid soils rich in humus but poor in plant available nitrogen. The calcifuge dwarf shrub is adapted to the low and disharmonic nutrient supply in the root-room, resulting from a relative excess of aluminium, iron and potassium and a complementary lack of calcium and magnesium at the exchange complex. The leaves and stems of V. myrtillus contain high amounts of manganese, which is abundantly available at low pH values. Furthermore, the plants have a relatively high absorption capacity for calcium and their requirements for nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus seems to be low. There are only little differences in the mineral nutrient contents in leaves and stems of V. myrtillus collected from contrasting habitat types. At higher altitudes, roots of V. myrtillus are restricted to the uppermost 20 cm, whereas at lower altitudes rooting depth is up to 50 cm.


Steiner S.,University of Vienna | Neidl A.,University of Vienna | Linhart N.,University of Vienna | Tichy A.,University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

The objective of the study was to compare the performance of five types of stomach tubes for rumen fluid sampling. Rumen fluid was sampled in rumen fistulated cows assigned to a 5×5 Latin square study design. The pH values of samples taken by stomach tubes and via fistulas were measured; the results were compared with indwelling sensor measurements. The practicability of the stomach tubes for regular use was tested in the field. Rumen fluid samples were obtained rapidly. Volumes for transfaunation could be obtained. The pH-values of samples taken with the four out of the five tubes (Dirksen, Geishauser, tube 4 and a simple water hose used with a gag) did not show significant differences to samples taken via rumen fistulas. Mean differences ranged between -0.02 and +0.09. Samples taken with tube 4 and the water hose showed also no significant differences to pH-sensor measurements. This study demonstrates that stomach tubes are suitable for rumen fluid sampling. Tube 4 seems to be the best probe for work in the field. It was well tolerated by the animals, saliva contamination is negligible. We, therefore, conclude that the evaluation of rumen acid base status in the field is possible.


PubMed | University of Vienna and Agricultural Research and Education Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2015

The objective of the study was to compare the performance of five types of stomach tubes for rumen fluid sampling. Rumen fluid was sampled in rumen fistulated cows assigned to a 55 Latin square study design. The pH values of samples taken by stomach tubes and via fistulas were measured; the results were compared with indwelling sensor measurements. The practicability of the stomach tubes for regular use was tested in the field. Rumen fluid samples were obtained rapidly. Volumes for transfaunation could be obtained. The pH-values of samples taken with the four out of the five tubes (Dirksen, Geishauser, tube 4 and a simple water hose used with a gag) did not show significant differences to samples taken via rumen fistulas. Mean differences ranged between -0.02 and +0.09. Samples taken with tube 4 and the water hose showed also no significant differences to pH-sensor measurements. This study demonstrates that stomach tubes are suitable for rumen fluid sampling. Tube 4 seems to be the best probe for work in the field. It was well tolerated by the animals, saliva contamination is negligible. We, therefore, conclude that the evaluation of rumen acid base status in the field is possible.


Abouzari A.,Agricultural Research and Education Center | Nezhad N.M.,University of Zabol
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2016

Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world. In citrus, the concept of fruit quality comprises several other aspects intimately related to human health apart from physical attributes and diet components. Citrus is an excellent model to study fruit quality because of its peculiar fruiting, singular biochemistry and economical relevance. A citrus breeding programme starts with the selection of suitable parents and the planning of controlled crosses. Information on the breeding value of available parents and the heritability of specifi c characters is important in a plant breeding programme to aid the breeder in parent selection and the planning of controlled crosses. Major goals of variety breeding in citrus are mostly related to fruit quality, productivity and harvesting period. In a broad sense, citrus fruit quality includes many physical attributes like fruit color, fruit size, easy of peeling and seedlessness. These traits have become paramount in commercial citrus types and new cultivar being developed through plant breeding and selection of new sports. This paper focus on four main citrus characteristics that responsible for fruit quality and are the basis for judging the product acceptability by consumers. We also discuss the variety strategy for citrus quality improvement.

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