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Grigoras M.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Popescu A.,University of Bucharest | Pamfil D.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Has I.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda | Gidea M.,University of Bucharest
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca

The paper aimed at making a comparison between conservation agriculture and conventional agriculture on wheat yield, in a three crop rotation (wheat, maize and soybean) system. A three factorial experiment based on the split-plot model and variance analysis was set in the Transylvania area of Romania, as follows: A factor-agriculture system: A1-tillage, A2-no-tillage, B factor-fertilization: B1-N40P40 kg/ha. B2-N40P40 kg/ha+N50P30 kg/ha; C factor- treatments: C1-4 treatments, C2-3 treatments, C3-2 treatments at heading, C4-2 treatments at blooming. Fertilization applied in its B2 variant in conservation agriculture brought 460 kg/ha production gain, significantly and statistically ensured. Under conservation agriculture, two treatments applied at blooming determined 318 kg/ha production gain, statistically and significantly covered. The interaction fertilization-treatments produced the highest wheat yield 5001 kg/ha in case of the B2C3 variant, in conventional agriculture, and 5272 kg for the same variant in conservation agriculture, the difference of 953 kg compared to the central variant B1C1 being statistically ensured. Under the conditions of Transylvania, farmers could adopt conservation agriculture as a solution for increasing wheat production, reducing the number of treatments and applying more fertilizer upon blooming. The advantage of the implementation of such a system resides in its beneficial effect on soil structure, water reserve and biodiversity, as well. Source

Ardelean M.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Cordea M.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Has V.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda | Bors A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca

Yield stability in sweet corn and its dependence on G x E interaction were investigated in a series of two way experiments. Five Romanian sweet corn hybrids were tested in three years (2008-2010) in three locations of Central Transylvania in different soils and climatic conditions. The experiments were organized in a split plot design in which, on a general level of organic fertilization (40 t/ha manure), four levels of mineral N fertilization were applied (kg/ha, active matter): N0, typical for organic technologies; N50, corresponding to the low-input (sustainable) system; N100 and N150 customary with conventional system of agriculture. Based on ear yield data registered for hybrids in locations x years x cropping system, a phenotypic index (Pi) was computed for each sweet corn hybrid illustrating the stability of their cob yields, with and without husks. The share of genotypic and G x E effects in the total value of Pi have been estimated. In different agricultural systems the tested hybrids were classified differently based on their Pi values. It is concluded that, at least for the time being, the initiation of an organic breeding program for sweet corn, in Romania, is not economically justified since all semiearly and semilate tested hybrids yielded satisfactorily under organic agricultural practices. Moreover, among the recently released sweet corn hybrids one can find certain genotypes highly suitable to organic (i.e. 'Deliciul verii', 'Estival') or low input ('Dulcin', 'Estival') agricultural practices. These three hybrids recorded the highes ear yields (with and without husks) over years, locations and agricultural systems. Source

Grigoras M.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Popescu A.,University of Bucharest | Negrutiu I.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Gidea M.,University of Bucharest | And 2 more authors.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca

Conservation agriculture is an alternative to conventional agriculture and one of the most efficient systems for sustainable agricultural development, stimulating soil biological activity, increasing organic matter and humus content. In order to evaluate the impact of the conservation agriculture system compared to the conventional agriculture system on wheat yield, a bi-factorial experiment on wheat crop based on split-plot model was organized in the Transylvania Plain, Romania, where there are a few research results in the field and the area has a high potential for the implementation of conservation agriculture system. First factor ('A') was agriculture system, having two levels: 'A1' tillage (classic) system and 'A2' no-tillage system, and the second, 'B' factor was fertilization, with three levels: 'B1' no fertilization, 'B2'- N80P40 kg/ha, which is the average level practiced by farmers in the area and 'B3'- N150P75 kg/ha, which is the recommended level for obtaining a high production performance specific to 'Ariesan' wheat cultivar used in this experiment. The results pointed out that, in comparison with conventional agriculture, the application of no-tillage system determined a lower wheat yield by 353 kg per surface unit. Fertilization assured a significant increase by 610 kg wheat grains per ha. In the case of the conservation agriculture system, the highest production gain was 1,260 kg/ha for 'B3A2' level compared to 'B1A2' level, where the highest fertilization level was applied. The lowest production gain was 410 kg/ha registered by 'B3A1-B1A1' which was the highest fertilizer dose in case of conventional agriculture. In conclusion, the application of no-tillage system increased the efficiency of fertilization in terms of wheat yield compared to the classical agriculture. As a result, it is recommended as farmers dealing with wheat cropping in the area and also in other regions with similar soil and climate conditions to implement conservation agriculture. Source

Calboreanu C.,Syngenta | Ardelean M.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Has V.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda | Has I.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | And 2 more authors.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca

The genetic diversity of the inbreed lines used in hybrid formula is a major component of the final success of sweet corn commercial hybrids. The purposes of the presented paper were to identify and prognosticate the performance of 'Sugary 1' sweet corn inbreed lines, on the basis of their variability expressed at phenotypic and genotypic levels. In this respect 18 inbreed "su" lines, developed at the Turda (Romania) Agricultural Research and Development Station (ARDS) were studied concerning the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of ear weight, ear length, no. of rows/ear and depth of kernels. The results obtained have shown that T152su, T339su, TA28su, TD10su, TA26su, TC209su lines have registered high values for the phenotypic expression for the studied characters. T339su, TA28su transmit positive additive genetic effects for the studied characters. The most obvious differences at the non additive genetic level were found in T339Rsu with T244su, T193Asu with T233su, TC209su, TA27su with T244su, TC209su and T152su with TC209su. Source

Malschi D.,Babes - Bolyai University | Malschi D.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda | Ivas A.D.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda | Ignea M.,Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda
Romanian Agricultural Research

Elaborated in 2007-2011, at Agricultural Research Station Turda, the paper presents research on integrated pest management in winter wheat crops in relation to increased pest abundance and attack, on the agro-ecological changes, in Transylvania. Entomological study has been carried out under different cultural soil technologies: classical (by ploughing) and conservative (by minimum soil tillage and no tillage), in open field agro ecosystems with anti-erosional terraces and in agroforestry belts farming system. The spring months of the last years were characterized by an increased warming and dryness periods, causing the pest abundance and damages growth on wheat. Were pointed out major outbreaks of attack of thrips (Haplothrips tritici); wheat flies (Chloropidae: Oscinella frit, Meromyza nigriventris, Elachiptera cornuta etc. and Anthomyidae: Delia coarctata, Phorbia securis, Ph. penicillifera); stem flea beetles (Chaetocnema aridula); bugs (Eurygaster maura, Aelia acuminata), leafhoppers (Javesella pellucida, Psammotettix alienus, Macrosteles laevis), aphids (Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum padi, Metopolophium dirhodum) etc. The research results proved the importance of integrated pests control and insecticide applications in two different moments: end of tillering phase and ear emergence, in open field with classical soil technology. Also, the integrated pests management (IPM) is a major section of successive soil no tillage technologies, comprising a special pest control strategy, with insecticides application in 2-3 successive treatments, entomophagous conservation and use, environmental protection. The IPM research pointed out the efficiency of biological control, only using the entomophagous natural resources, without insecticides application, in the farming system with protective agro-forestry belts - favourable for increasing of useful fauna. Source

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