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Battacone G.,University of Sassari | Nudda A.,University of Sassari | Rassu S.P.G.,University of Sassari | Decandia M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia AGRIS Sardegna | Pulina G.,University of Sassari
Journal of Dairy Science

The feedstuffs used in dairy animals must be able to give consumers confidence about the wholesomeness of milk with regard to aflatoxin contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the excretion patterns of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the milk of dairy goats fed a single dose of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which can occasionally occur if feeds are infected by hot-spot growth of molds that produce aflatoxins. Five dairy goats in midlactation were administered 0.8mg of AFB1 orally. Individual milk samples were collected for 84h after AFB1 dosage. Aflatoxin M1 was found in milk in the highest concentration. In all goats, AFM1 was not detected in milk before AFB1 administration, but was detected in the first milking following AFB1 administration. The excretion pattern of AFM1 concentration in milk was very similar in all goats even if the values of the concentration differed between animals. The peak values for AFM1 concentration in milk was observed in milk collected during the milking at 3 and 6h. After the peak, the AFM1 in milk disappeared with a trend that fitted well a monoexponential decreasing function, and the toxin was not detected after 84h. Only about 0.17% of the amount of AFB1 administered was detected as AFM1 in milk, and about 50% of this was excreted in the first liter of milk yielded after AFB1 intake. Correct procedures to prevent growth of molds, and consequent AFB1 contamination, on the feedstuffs for lactating goats represent the key to providing consumers a guarantee that milk is not contaminated by AFM1. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Nudda A.,University of Sassari | Battacone G.,University of Sassari | Bomboi G.,University of Sassari | Floris B.,University of Sassari | And 2 more authors.

Aim of this work was to evaluate if long-term dietary supplementation of potassium iodide (KI) to dairy goats can influence metabolic and hormonal parameters. Thirty Sarda crossbred dairy goats were divided into three groups, which were orally administered 0 (control group; CON), 0.45 (low iodine group; LI) or 0.90 (high iodine group; HI) mg of KI/day, respectively. The daily dose of KI (76.5% of iodine) was administered as salt dissolved in water for 8 weeks. Plasma contents of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea, glucose, insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroxine (FT4) were determined weekly. Iodine supplementation increased significantly the FT3 hormone (P = 0.007) and FT3/FT4 ratio (P = 0.001) and tended to influence the FT4 hormone (P = 0.059). An iodine level × week of sampling interaction for NEFA (P = 0.013) evidenced a temporary concentration increase in supplemented groups. The 'Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index' increased with KI supplementation (P ≤ 0.01). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and insulin were lowered (P ≤ 0.01) by iodine supplementation (groups LI and HI; P ≤ 0.01). The glucose concentration evidenced an iodine level × week of sampling interaction (P = 0.025) due to an unexpected and temporary increase of its concentration in the CON group. Glucose concentration was decreased by KI supplementation only in LI group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the daily supplementation of low doses of KI can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease BUN in dairy goats. Copyright © 2012 The Animal Consortium. Source

Campus M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia AGRIS Sardegna | Sedda P.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia AGRIS Sardegna | Cauli E.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia AGRIS Sardegna | Piras F.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia AGRIS Sardegna | And 7 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology

The processing of natural table olives is still empirical and far to be controlled. Taking natural fermentation (NF) as control, the performances of a single strain LAB starter culture (SSL) and a selected inoculum enrichment (SIE) were compared. The results showed that the SIE was more efficient in controlling spoiling microflora (Enterobacteriaceae spp.) compared to SSL and NF. Indeed, Enterobacteriaceae in SIE samples were not detectable starting from 10 days, while in SSL and NF samples starting from 30 days. Both starters rapidly acidified the brine, lowering the pH to safety levels (<4.0) after 12 days, while NF samples reached pH 4.3 after 45 days, and these values were kept constant up to 150 days. Moreover, both starters showed debittering activity, as stated through sensory analyses and HPLC analysis of phenols. Compared to NF samples, SIE and SSL extracts retained more hydroxytyrosol at the end of the process, and this could partially account for their higher scavenging activity. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that olives processed with SIE inoculum were firmer and more elastic, compared to SSL inoculated olives, thus resulting more similar to NF samples. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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