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D'Aquino S.,National Research Council Italy | Suming D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Deng Z.,Hunan Agricultural University | Gentile A.,Hunan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2017

Storage of individual seal-packaged citrus fruit at room temperature in China is a very common practice that requires a pre-storage treatment with a high concentration of an effective fungicide as imazalil (IMZ) to prevent decay. In this study, lemons were washed with NaOCl (200 mg L−1) or not, treated with IMZ (50 or 1000 mg L−1) at 20 or 50 °C and individually wrapped with a 16-μm thick extensible polyvinylchloride film (Film A) or two heat shrinkable polyolefinic films, thick 15 (Film B) or 19-μm (Film C). The sequential treatment with NaOCl and IMZ at 50 mg L−1 at 50 °C, was as effective as IMZ at 1000 mg L−1 at 20 °C in controlling Penicillium decay. Losses for decay in fruit wrapped with the two more permeable films (Film A and Film B) never exceeded 10%, while in those wrapped with Film C (the least permeable) peaked to 41%. All films reduced weight losses, which at the end of storage were 11% in fruit wrapped with Film A and below 4% in those wrapped with the other two films, while were 41% in unwrapped ones. After one week of storage, only 50% of unwrapped fruit were marketable whereas all wrapped fruit were still marketable after 8 weeks. Respiration as well as juice acetaldehyde and ethanol were slightly affected by the two more permeable films, while an abnormal production of CO2, acetaldehyde and ethanol occurred in those wrapped with film C. Changes in chemical parameters were relevant in fruit sealed with Film C and minor in those with Film A and Film B. Decay control and quality preservation of lemons stored at room temperature can be achieved for several weeks by a sequential treatment with NaOCl and a heated water emulsion of IMZ at 50 mg L−1, when fruit are wrapped with plastic films highly permeable to gases. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Marras P.M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Cocco A.,University of Sassari | Muscas E.,University of Sassari | Lentini A.,University of Sassari
Biological Control | Year: 2016

Planococcus ficus (Signoret) is a key pest of grapevines and can cause severe crop losses in table and wine grape cultivars. In order to explore the potential of annual inoculative releases of Leptomastix dactylopii Howard against the vine mealybug, laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of P. ficus as a host for the parasitoid. The biological performance of L. dactylopii on P. ficus was examined in choice and no-choice tests, and compared with its performance on the primary host, Planococcus citri (Risso). Planococcus ficus supported complete development of the parasitoid with higher than 86% survival rates and a lower than 5% effective encapsulation. The low rates of encapsulation and host-feeding and high survivorship make P. ficus a suitable host for L. dactylopii in mass rearing facilities. In the choice test, parasitoids reared on P. ficus, or with prior oviposition experience on this species, preferred it over P. citri. Unexpectedly, parasitoids reared on P. citri, or with prior oviposition experience on this species, did not show any preference for either mealybug species. Our findings highlight a potential innate preference of L. dactylopii for the vine mealybug and indicate that this innate preference can be modified by the rearing host and early oviposition experiences. Thus, mass rearing of L. dactylopii on P. ficus would increase its preference for the target pest, with a positive impact on biological control programs against the vine mealybug. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Floris R.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Manca S.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Fois N.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia
Transitional Waters Bulletin | Year: 2013

1 - The bacterial flora of the digestive tract of aquatic organisms reflects various factors, such as the aqueous environment (temperature, salinity, etc.), seasonal variation, diet, fish species and anatomy of gastrointestinal section. 2 - In the present work, culturable bacteria isolated from intestinal samples of gilthead sea bream caught in two coastal lagoons of Sardinia, were quantified and identified in order to detect the effect of different habitats on the microbial ecology of fish gut. 3 - A total of 120 bacterial colonies coming from intestinal tracts of Sparus aurata specimens captured in the Tortoli (Eastern Sardinia: Lat 39°56' 854"N, Long 9°41'160"E) and Porto Pino (Southern Sardinia: Lat 39°02' 54"N, Long 08°32'54"E) lagoons during the winter season, were identified by means of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. 4 - The results showed no significant differences in the bacterial loads, while a diverse composition of microbial gut flora was detected between the two groups of gilthead sea bream. Indeed, intestinal microbiota from the Tortoli lagoon showed high genetic variation with a total of 13 different taxonomic bacterial groups identified as Pseudomonas spp. (33.3%), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (10.5%), Proteus spp. (8.8%), Chryseobacterium sp. B-G-R2A3 (5.3%), Arctic soil bacterium A1T3 (5.3%), Sphingobacterium spp. (5.3%), Psychrobacter spp. (3.5%), Psychrobacter maritimus (3.5%), Leucobacter spp. (3.5%), Yersinia bercovieri (3.5%), Aeromonas spp. (3.5%), Aeromonas molluscorum (1.7%), and Erwinia persicina (1.7%). On the other hand, 16S rRNA gene analyses of bacterial flora performed on the Porto Pino gut samples, revealed a lower variability when compared with those from Tortoli, since only 3 different taxonomic groups were distinguished and ascribed to Pseudomonas spp. (90%), Janthinobacterium spp. (8%) and Psychrobacter maritimus (2%). 5 - Our findings indicate that the aqueous habitat highly selects fish microbial gut flora which represents a peculiar ecosystem and a possible biomarker of environmental origin. © 2013 University of Salento- SIBA.


Addis M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Fiori M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Riu G.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Pes M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

Pecorino Romano, a protected designation of origin (PDO) semi-cooked hard cheese, is the best known Italian dairy product obtained from ovine milk and one of the most exported Italian cheeses in the world. The aim of this work was to provide useful information on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of PDO Pecorino Romano cheese taking into account the variability related to the season of cheese manufacture. A total of 70 samples of Pecorino Romano cheese, with a ripening time ranged from 7 to 8 months, and manufactured at different times of the year (from March to June) were analyzed. The month of production affected cheese composition, and cheeses produced in late winter and spring were characterized by a less fat and salt content and a higher protein content with respect to those produced in early summer. Also the biochemical processes of proteolysis and lipolysis were influenced by the seasonality of productions. In particular cheeses produced at late winter were more proteolyzed and lipolyzed if compared with those manufactured at summer season. The nutritional value of cheese fat, associated in particular with linolenic, rumenic and vaccenic acids content, decreased with the progress of season probably due to variation in animal feed, pasture availability and fatty acids composition of grass lipids. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Incani A.,University of Cagliari | Serra G.,University of Cagliari | Atzeri A.,University of Cagliari | Melis M.P.,University of Cagliari | And 6 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) concentrates before absorption in the intestinal lumen, where it may contribute to the modulation of enterocytes response to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. We evaluated the ability of two monovarietal EVOOs phenolic extracts, Bosana and Nera di Gonnos/Tonda di Cagliari, typical and widespread varieties in Sardinia (Italy), to counteract in enterocytes like Caco-2 cells the pro-oxidant action of oxidized lipids, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) or a mixture of oxysterols of dietary origin. We confirmed that TBH treatment causes a significant increase of ROS production, GSH depletion, increase of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, and showed first evidence of oxidative imbalance and cell damage due to oxysterols exposure. Preincubation of cells with the phenolic extracts significantly attenuated oxidative modifications. Bosana extract showed the highest concentration of total phenols, mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and was the most active in presence of TBH, where the free radical scavenging activity of these simple phenols seems to be a determining factor. The two extracts were equally effective, in spite of the different composition, in presence of oxysterols, where ROS production probably occurs according to different and more complex mechanisms. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Mayorg I.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Mayorg I.,University of Padua | Maraa L.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Sannaa D.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) is a very important tool for the genetic improvement and preservation of endangered livestock. However, the success of a MOET programme highly depends on the number of transferable embryos in response to a superovulation treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the number and quality of embryos produced during natural oestrus under porcine FSH treatment without the use of progesterone devices to more traditional protocols. Forty Sarda sheep were divided into 2 groups: without sponges (WS) (n = 20) and with sponges (S) containing 40mg FGA for 12 d (n = 20) (control group); 350 I.U. of porcine FSH per sheep was administered in eight decreasing doses twice daily starting four days after estrus was detected (Day 0) in group WS and 48 h before sponge removal in group S. A single i.m. dose of 125 μg of cloprostenol was administered on Day 6 after estrus in group WS to induce luteolysis. Sheep were naturally mated 24 h after cloprostenol injection or sponge removal. Seven days after mating, an inguinal laparotomy was performed and the number of corpora lutea (CL) recorded. Embryos were recovered surgically by flushing each uterine horn. A total of 38 fresh and 22 vitrified embryos were transferred in pairs into 3 groups of recipients seven days after estrus detection: fresh embryos from group S (S-F) (n = 9), fresh embryos from group WS (WS-F) (n = 10) and vitrified embryos from group WS (WS-V) (n = 11). Data on the number of corpora lutea (CL), recovered ova and embryos (OER), and quality 1-2 and 3 embryos (EQ1-2,EQ3) per ewe were analyzed by ANOVA. Recovery (RR), fertility (FR) and quality 1-2 embryo (Q1-2R) rates per treatment were analyzed by a Chi Square analysis. A Chi Square analysis was also applied to pregnancy rate (PR), lambing rate (LR) and twinning rate (TR) of fresh and vitrified embryos in order to analyze embryo transfer results. Among all superovulation variables analysed, results show statistically significant differences in mean number of CL/ ewe (9.3 ± 3.9 vs 7 ± 3.2), RR (67% vs 80 %) and FR (100% vs 80%) (P < 0.05) between WS and S groups respectively. There were no significant differences in PR (78%, 70% and 82%), LR (67%, 60% and 59%) and TR (71%, 71% and 44.4%) among S-F, WS-F and WS-V groups respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to produce a good number of transferable embryos during natural oestrus avoiding the use of sponges. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Angioni A.,University of Cagliari | Dedola F.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Garau A.,University of Cagliari | Sarais G.,University of Cagliari | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2011

Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) was applied with three different formulations on oranges, peaches, tomatoes, wine and table grapes, and its behaviour was evaluated after field treatment. The formulations applied were emulsifiable concentrates (EC), microencapsulates (ME), and wettable granules (WG). The residues were similar in all crops studied in the EC and WG experiments, except peaches with WG treatment, the residue amount was lower than EC values. Tomatoes which were grown in greenhouse showed similar residues in all treatments just after treatment. Wine and table grapes showed different decline curves in the EC experiments ascribable to the different growing technology. Instrumental limit of determination (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for all matrices were 0.01, and 0.03mg kg -1, respectively. Repeated treatments showed that Chlorpyrifos can accumulate leading to residue levels at the preharvest interval (PHI) over themaximumresidue level (MRL), especially on oranges and peaches. Among the formulates used ME showed the higher risk of residues over the MRL at harvest. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Mara L.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Sanna D.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Dattena M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia | Mayorga Munoz I.M.,Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia
Zygote | Year: 2014

It has been reported that different in vitro culture systems affect the birth weight of lambs. The aim of this study was to test body weight and lambing rate of lambs born from five different in vitro culture systems after vitrification. Oocytes of Sarda sheep were matured in TCM-199 plus 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systems: (i) 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA4); (ii) 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA (BSA8); (iii) BSA8-hyaluronan (BSA8-HA); (iv) BSA8-charcoal-stripped FBS (BSA8-CH); or (v) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; serum) and fertilized with fresh semen. The presumptive zygotes were cultured up to the blastocyst stage with BSA8, BSA8-HA, BSA8-CH or serum or BSA4. In the third and fifth days of culture 5% charcoal-stripped FBS was added into BSA8-CH and serum, while 8 mg/ml or 4 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA was added as BSA8, BSA8-HA and BSA4 respectively; 6 mg/ml HA was added to BSA8-HA. In total, 240 vitrified blastocysts were transferred into synchronized ewes. The lambing rate was not significant different between BSA groups or between serum groups (BSA8-CH and serum), while serum groups showed significant lower values when compared with BSA groups. Only BSA8 groups produced heavy lambs (≥4.5 kg) with a significant difference between BSA4 and BSA8 groups (P < 0.05). © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


PubMed | Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2011

Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) is a very important tool for the genetic improvement and preservation of endangered livestock. However, the success of a MOET programme highly depends on the number of transferable embryos in response to a superovulation treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the number and quality of embryos produced during natural oestrus under porcine FSH treatment without the use of progesterone devices to more traditional protocols. Forty Sarda sheep were divided into 2 groups: without sponges (WS) (n = 20) and with sponges (S) containing 40mg FGA for 12 d (n = 20) (control group); 350 I.U. of porcine FSH per sheep was administered in eight decreasing doses twice daily starting four days after estrus was detected (Day 0) in group WS and 48 h before sponge removal in group S. A single i.m. dose of 125 g of cloprostenol was administered on Day 6 after estrus in group WS to induce luteolysis. Sheep were naturally mated 24 h after cloprostenol injection or sponge removal. Seven days after mating, an inguinal laparotomy was performed and the number of corpora lutea (CL) recorded. Embryos were recovered surgically by flushing each uterine horn. A total of 38 fresh and 22 vitrified embryos were transferred in pairs into 3 groups of recipients seven days after estrus detection: fresh embryos from group S (S-F) (n = 9), fresh embryos from group WS (WS-F) (n = 10) and vitrified embryos from group WS (WS-V) (n = 11). Data on the number of corpora lutea (CL), recovered ova and embryos (OER), and quality 1-2 and 3 embryos (EQ(1-2), EQ(3)) per ewe were analyzed by ANOVA. Recovery (RR), fertility (FR) and quality 1-2 embryo (Q(1-2)R) rates per treatment were analyzed by a Chi Square analysis. A Chi Square analysis was also applied to pregnancy rate (PR), lambing rate (LR) and twinning rate (TR) of fresh and vitrified embryos in order to analyze embryo transfer results. Among all superovulation variables analysed, results show statistically significant differences in mean number of CL/ ewe (9.3 3.9 vs 7 3.2), RR (67% vs 80 %) and FR (100% vs 80%) (P < 0.05) between WS and S groups respectively. There were no significant differences in PR (78%, 70% and 82%), LR (67%, 60% and 59%) and TR (71%, 71% and 44.4%) among S-F, WS-F and WS-V groups respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to produce a good number of transferable embryos during natural oestrus avoiding the use of sponges.


PubMed | University of Cagliari and Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) concentrates before absorption in the intestinal lumen, where it may contribute to the modulation of enterocytes response to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. We evaluated the ability of two monovarietal EVOOs phenolic extracts, Bosana and Nera di Gonnos/Tonda di Cagliari, typical and widespread varieties in Sardinia (Italy), to counteract in enterocytes like Caco-2cells the pro-oxidant action of oxidized lipids, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) or a mixture of oxysterols of dietary origin. We confirmed that TBH treatment causes a significant increase of ROS production, GSH depletion, increase of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, and showed first evidence of oxidative imbalance and cell damage due to oxysterols exposure. Preincubation of cells with the phenolic extracts significantly attenuated oxidative modifications. Bosana extract showed the highest concentration of total phenols, mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and was the most active in presence of TBH, where the free radical scavenging activity of these simple phenols seems to be a determining factor. The two extracts were equally effective, in spite of the different composition, in presence of oxysterols, where ROS production probably occurs according to different and more complex mechanisms.

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