Agricultural Research

Eşfahān, Iran

Agricultural Research

Eşfahān, Iran

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The present invention concerns a food supplement comprising Salvia sclarea seeds, or flour, oil or pulp or extracts obtained from the seeds as well as finished food products comprising the food supplement. The present invention further concerns a nutraceutical or cosmetic preparation comprising as an active ingredient Salvia sclarea seeds, or flour, oil or pulp or extracts obtained from the seeds.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Annapolis, MD; May 3, 2017--As the managed honey bee industry continues to grapple with significant annual colony losses, the Varroa destructor mite is emerging as the leading culprit. And, it turns out, the very nature of modern beekeeping may be giving the parasite the exact conditions it needs to spread nearly beyond control. In an article to be published next week in the Entomological Society of America's Environmental Entomology, researchers argue that the Varroa mite has "co-opted" several honey bee behaviors to its own benefit, allowing it to disperse widely even though the mite itself is not a highly mobile insect. The mite's ability to hitchhike on wandering bees, the infections it transmits to bees, and the density of colonies in managed beekeeping settings make for a deadly combination. "Beekeepers need to rethink Varroa control and treat Varroa as a migratory pest," says Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Ph.D., research leader and location coordinator at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service's Carl Hayden Bee Research Center in Tucson, Arizona, and lead author of the research. In the wild, bee colonies tend to survive despite Varroa infestations, and colonies are usually located far enough apart to prevent mites from hitching rides to other colonies on foraging bees. Wild bee colonies' natural habit of periodically swarming--when the colony grows large enough that a portion of its bees splinter off to create a new colony elsewhere--also serves as a mechanism for thinning out the density of mite infestations and their associated pathogens. In managed honey bee settings, though, these dynamics are disrupted, DeGrandi-Hoffman says. Colonies are kept in close proximity, and swarming is prevented. DeGrandi-Hoffman, USDA-ARS colleague Henry Graham, and Fabiana Ahumada of AgScience Consulting, conducted an 11-month study of 120 honey bee colonies in one commercial bee operation, comparing those treated with mite-targeting insecticide (miticide) in the spring and fall with those treated only in the fall, and they found no significant difference in the results: more than half of the colonies were lost across the board. This aligns with what has been seen by beekeepers and researchers alike in recent years: Varroa populations continue to grow even after being treated with effective miticides. But why? The answer may be in its dispersal mechanisms. The researchers also conducted mathematical simulations of Varroa mite population dynamics to examine the effects of both migration of foragers between colonies and swarming. When bees can wander into other colonies--either to "rob" them of their honey or because they've simply lost their way--Varroa populations across colonies climb. Likewise, prohibiting colonies from splintering periodically via swarming also leads mite populations to rise. In the wild, DeGrandi-Hoffman and her colleagues note, driving a colony to collapse is against Varroa mites' own interest; if the colony dies, the mites die with it. But in commercial beekeeping settings, increasing infestation of a colony activates the dispersal mechanisms the mites need to spread. Weakened foragers are more likely to wander to other colonies, and weakened colonies are more likely to see foragers from healthy colonies visit to rob them of honey. In both cases, mites can hitch a ride from one colony to another. It all adds up to a critical point for managed honey bee industry. The researchers cite the need for new integrated pest management strategies to treat Varroa destructor as a migratory pest, as well as for further research into the specifics of Varroa dispersal. "Colony losses in the U.S. are at unsustainable levels for commercial beekeepers. These beekeepers supply colonies for the pollination of crops that represent one-third of U.S. agriculture and are essential components of heart healthy and cancer-prevention diets," says DeGrandi-Hoffman. "This research provides evidence that the tried and true ways of controlling Varroa are no longer feasible, and that new methods that are designed for control of a migratory pest are required." "Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host-Parasite Relationship and Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies?" by Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, and Henry Graham, will be published online on May 9 in Environmental Entomology. Journalists may request advance copies of the article via the contact below. ABOUT: ESA is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has over 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry, and government. Headquartered in Annapolis, Maryland, the Society stands ready as a non-partisan scientific and educational resource for all insect-related topics. For more information, visit http://www. . Environmental Entomology publishes reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment. For more information, visit https:/ , or visit https:/ to view the full portfolio of ESA journals and publications


The initiative will be chaired by: "Given the challenges facing agriculture – from producing more food, to using less land and fewer resources – we need innovation more than ever," said Thomas Grumbly, President of the Supporters of Agricultural Research (SoAR) Foundation, which helped conceive and fund Breakthroughs 2030. "Dr. Wessler and Dr. Floros have excellent reputations, and their backgrounds are ideal for the crucial task ahead." "I look forward to the leadership of Dr. Wessler and Dr. Floros as co-chairs of this important effort to identify prime areas of scientific opportunity and spur collaboration across disciplines and stakeholder groups," said Sally Rockey, PhD, Executive Director of the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR), another major study funder. "I am confident that with these outstanding co-chairs at the helm, Breakthroughs 2030 will result in a compelling scientific vision for the future that incorporates the diverse expertise and innovative approaches being applied to address food and agriculture challenges." Working through the National Academies independent study process, Breakthroughs 2030 will involve input from hundreds of researchers and stakeholders to determine a vision that capitalizes on emerging trends, encourages greater interdisciplinary research, and informs the decisions of policymakers and academic leaders. Food and agriculture research stakeholders will be invited to participate in the process through the project's forthcoming interactive website and a town hall planned for this summer. A major scientific conference in Irvine, California, this coming September 2017, will further engage the greater scientific community in the U.S. A public launch reception for Breakthroughs 2030 is scheduled for 5:30 PM on Wednesday, June 14th at the National Academies of Science headquarters in Washington, DC. For more information on the Breakthroughs 2030 study and to sign up for updates, go to: http://nas-sites.org/dels/studies/agricultural-science-breakthroughs. Breakthroughs 2030, a $1.12 million effort, is being launched with diverse financial support from over twenty sources in the university, public health, and agricultural sectors as well as federal agencies. Current funders include: About the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR) The Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research, a 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organization, builds unique partnerships to support innovative and actionable science addressing today's food and agriculture challenges. Leveraging public and private resources, FFAR will increase the scientific and technological research, innovation, and partnerships critical to enhancing sustainable production of nutritious food for a growing global population. Established by the 2014 Farm Bill, FFAR is governed by a Board of Directors with ex officio representation from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and National Science Foundation. Learn more: www.foundationfar.org About the Supporters of Agricultural Research (SoAR) Foundation The SoAR Foundation leads a non-partisan coalition representing more than 6 million farming families, 100,000 scientists, hundreds of colleges and universities as well as consumers, veterinarians, and others. SoAR educates stakeholders about the importance of food and agricultural research to feed America and the world and advocates for full funding of USDA's Agriculture Food and Research Initiative (AFRI). SoAR supports increased federal investments to encourage top scientists to create agricultural solutions that improve public health, strengthen national security, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness. For more information, please visit www.supportagresearch.org. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/national-academies-launch-groundbreaking-initiative-to-produce-a-new-scientific-strategy-for-food-and-agriculture-research-300454730.html


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: phys.org

ARS chemist Reuven Rasooly and bioscience technician Paula Do study foodborne toxins. Rasooly developed a test to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins in foods. Credit: Stephen Ausmus One of the most common causes of food poisoning is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which produces a wide range of toxins. One of these, staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), has been associated with outbreaks in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, 1 in 6 Americans—48 million people—get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases. About 240,000 illnesses, 1,000 hospitalizations, and 6 deaths are caused by staphylococcal food poisoning. At the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California, chemist Reuven Rasooly and his colleagues have developed a less expensive, faster, and more sensitive test to specifically detect SEE in foods. The test uses immune cells called "T-cells." The current method for detecting these toxins is an animal model. It is expensive, has low sensitivity, and is difficult to reproduce. Other tests are available, but they can't distinguish between active toxin, which poses a threat to public health, and inactive toxin, which does not do so. "To detect active toxin," says Rasooly, "we used a T-cell line genetically engineered to produce light when exposed to staphylococcal toxin. The light intensity corresponds to the toxin concentration." If the cells are exposed to very low amounts of toxin, they give off very low light intensity. If they are exposed to higher amounts of toxin, light emission and intensity is greater, he explains. The animal-model test detects active toxin just 50 percent of the time, whereas the new T-cell test detects active toxin 100 percent of the time. "Our test is much more sensitive than the current 'gold standard' animal model or other tests," Rasooly says. In addition, the T-cell test detects toxin within 5 hours, whereas other tests take between 48 and 72 hours. "This is the most sensitive assay to date for detecting SEE," Rasooly says. "The test can be used by food makers who want to make their products safer before marketing them and by public health officials to trace the source of foodborne outbreaks."


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: phys.org

In an article to be published next week in the Entomological Society of America's Environmental Entomology, researchers argue that the Varroa mite has "co-opted" several honey bee behaviors to its own benefit, allowing it to disperse widely even though the mite itself is not a highly mobile insect. The mite's ability to hitchhike on wandering bees, the infections it transmits to bees, and the density of colonies in managed beekeeping settings make for a deadly combination. "Beekeepers need to rethink Varroa control and treat Varroa as a migratory pest," says Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Ph.D., research leader and location coordinator at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service's Carl Hayden Bee Research Center in Tucson, Arizona, and lead author of the research. In the wild, bee colonies tend to survive despite Varroa infestations, and colonies are usually located far enough apart to prevent mites from hitching rides to other colonies on foraging bees. Wild bee colonies' natural habit of periodically swarming—when the colony grows large enough that a portion of its bees splinter off to create a new colony elsewhere—also serves as a mechanism for thinning out the density of mite infestations and their associated pathogens. In managed honey bee settings, though, these dynamics are disrupted, DeGrandi-Hoffman says. Colonies are kept in close proximity, and swarming is prevented. DeGrandi-Hoffman, USDA-ARS colleague Henry Graham, and Fabiana Ahumada of AgScience Consulting, conducted an 11-month study of 120 honey bee colonies in one commercial bee operation, comparing those treated with mite-targeting insecticide (miticide) in the spring and fall with those treated only in the fall, and they found no significant difference in the results: more than half of the colonies were lost across the board. This aligns with what has been seen by beekeepers and researchers alike in recent years: Varroa populations continue to grow even after being treated with effective miticides. But why? The answer may be in its dispersal mechanisms. The researchers also conducted mathematical simulations of Varroa mite population dynamics to examine the effects of both migration of foragers between colonies and swarming. When bees can wander into other colonies—either to "rob" them of their honey or because they've simply lost their way—Varroa populations across colonies climb. Likewise, prohibiting colonies from splintering periodically via swarming also leads mite populations to rise. In the wild, DeGrandi-Hoffman and her colleagues note, driving a colony to collapse is against Varroa mites' own interest; if the colony dies, the mites die with it. But in commercial beekeeping settings, increasing infestation of a colony activates the dispersal mechanisms the mites need to spread. Weakened foragers are more likely to wander to other colonies, and weakened colonies are more likely to see foragers from healthy colonies visit to rob them of honey. In both cases, mites can hitch a ride from one colony to another. It all adds up to a critical point for managed honey bee industry. The researchers cite the need for new integrated pest management strategies to treat Varroa destructor as a migratory pest, as well as for further research into the specifics of Varroa dispersal. "Colony losses in the U.S. are at unsustainable levels for commercial beekeepers. These beekeepers supply colonies for the pollination of crops that represent one-third of U.S. agriculture and are essential components of heart healthy and cancer-prevention diets," says DeGrandi-Hoffman. "This research provides evidence that the tried and true ways of controlling Varroa are no longer feasible, and that new methods that are designed for control of a migratory pest are required." "Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host-Parasite Relationship and Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies?" by Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, and Henry Graham, will be published online on May 9 in Environmental Entomology. Explore further: To save honey bees, human behavior must change More information: Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman et al, Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host–Parasite Relationship and Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies?, Environmental Entomology (2017). DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvx077


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

WASHINGTON, D.C. May 24, 2017 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today announced five grants totaling more than $2.5 million for agricultural research that is funded jointly with national or state commodity boards. The funding is made possible through NIFA's Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), which was authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. "Our collaboration with commodity boards helps the U.S. agriculture industry thrive," said NIFA Director Sonny Ramaswamy. "By responding to the needs of the U.S. agricultural sector, we are investing in research that will have a positive economic impact." In FY 2016, the first year of collaboration with national and state commodity boards, topics from five commodity boards were integrated into four program area priorities within two AFRI Requests for Applications (RFAs): Improving Food Safety, Critical Agricultural Research and Extension, and Plant Breeding for Agricultural Production in the Foundational Program RFA; and Breeding and Phenomics of Food Crops and Animals in the Food Security Challenge Area RFA. The commodity boards provided half of the funding for the award in their topic area. The projects include: More information on these projects is available on the NIFA website. Commodity boards are organizations that promote, research, and share industry and consumer information on particular agricultural products, such as almonds, honey, lamb, and wheat. The 2014 Farm Bill enables commodity boards to submit topics for research supported through the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, America's flagship competitive grants program for foundational and translational research, education, and extension projects in the food and agricultural sciences. Topics must relate to established AFRI priority areas: plant health and production and plant products; animal health and production and animal products; food safety, nutrition, and health; bioenergy, natural resources, and environment; agriculture systems and technology; and agriculture economics and rural communities. Once topics are approved, the resulting proposals are reviewed using NIFA's established peer-review process. NIFA welcomes commodity board topics that support AFRI priority areas throughout the year. To submit a topic for consideration for inclusion in an AFRI RFA in FY18, commodity board representatives should visit the NIFA Commodity Board webpage for more information NIFA invests in and advances agricultural research, education, and extension and promotes transformative discoveries that solve societal challenges. NIFA's integrated research, education, and extension programs support the best and brightest scientists and extension personnel whose work results in user-inspired, groundbreaking discoveries that combat childhood obesity, improve and sustain rural economic growth, address water availability issues, increase food production, find new sources of energy, mitigate climate variability, and ensure food safety. To learn more about NIFA's impact on agricultural science, visit http://www. , sign up for email updates or follow us on Twitter @USDA_NIFA, #NIFAimpacts. USDA is an equal opportunity lender, provider, and employer.


Patent
Agricultural Research | Date: 2015-10-13

A vessel having an opening for receiving the product and walls surrounding the vessel at all sides except the opening. The interior of the vessel is filled with a fluid having a specific gravity lower than a specific gravity of a medium surrounding the walls outside the vessel. While the vessel is oriented with the opening facing downwards, the vessel and/or product is/are conveyed to ensure that the product enters the interior through the opening.


Patent
Agricultural Research, Yeda Research, Development Co. and Tel Aviv University | Date: 2013-12-26

Lactic acid cell cultures for processing lignocellulose are disclosed. The bacterial culture may comprise a biomass composition and a population of lactic acid bacteria which comprises: (i) a first population of lactic acid bacteria which has been genetically modified to express a secreted cellulase; and (ii) a second population of lactic acid bacteria which has been genetically modified to express a secreted xylanase, wherein the ratio of the first population: second population is selected such that the specific activity of cellulase:xylanase in the culture is greater than 4:1 or less than 1:4.


A method for breeding tomato plants that produce tomatoes with reduced fruit water content including the steps of crossing at least one Lycopersicon esculentum plant with a Lycopersicon spp. to produce hybrid seed, collecting the first generation of hybrid seeds, growing plants from the first generation of hybrid seeds, pollinating the plants of the most recent hybrid generation, collecting the seeds produced by the most recent hybrid generation, growing plants from the seeds of the most recent hybrid generation, allowing plants to remain on the vine past the point of normal ripening, and screening for reduced fruit water content as indicated by extended preservation of the ripe fruit and wrinkling of the fruit skin.


Patent
Agricultural Research | Date: 2013-05-07

An induction charging nozzle assembly includes two branches of one or two electrodes, a nozzle and a power supply. The nozzle is positioned to spray an atomized spray of a liquid between parallel portions of the electrode branches. The power supply applies an electrical potential to the electrode(s) relative to the (grounded) liquid so that the liquid acquires an electrical charge when sprayed from the nozzle. Preferably, the nozzle is a hydraulic flat fan nozzle. The atomized spray preferably has a volume mean diameter between 80 microns and 140 microns and a charge-to-mass ratio of at least 0.8 mC/kg.

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