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Novo Mesto, Slovenia

Knoche M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Khanal B.P.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia | Stopar M.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science

The effect of four applications of gibberellin A 4+7 [GA 4+7 (10 mg·L -1 at 10-day intervals beginning with petal fall)] on water-induced russeting, formation of microcracks. and on fruit growth and deposition of the cuticular membrane (CM) was studied in developing 'Golden Delicious' fruit (Malus ·domestica Borkh.). Submerging developing apple fruit in deionized water for 48 h induced russeting in untreated control but not in GA 4+7-treated fruit. Immersing in water during early fruit development, 19 days after full bloom (19 DAFB), resulted in more russeting than immersions occurring later (139 DAFB). Water on the outer surface of epidermal segments increased the frequency of microscopic cracks in untreated controls but to a lesser degree in GA 4+7-treated fruit. The effect of GA 4+7 on water-induced russeting and formation of microcracks was larger during early as compared with later stages of fruit development. Fruit treated with GA 4+7 consistently had fewer microcracks as compared with nontreated control fruit. GA 4+7 had no effect on amounts or rates of cutin or wax deposition, strain, or mechanical properties of the CM as compared with the non-treated control. Thus, the decrease in russeting and formation of microcracks in the cuticle of GA 4+7-treated fruit must be accounted for effects on underlying epi- and hypodermal tissues. Source

Grafenhan T.,Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center | Grafenhan T.,Canadian Grain Commission | Schroers H.-J.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia | Nirenberg H.I.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Seifert K.A.,Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center
Studies in Mycology

A comprehensive phylogenetic reassessment of the ascomycete genus Cosmospora (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is undertaken using fresh isolates and historical strains, sequences of two protein encoding genes, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2), and a new phylogenetic marker, the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1). The result is an extensive revision of taxonomic concepts, typification, and nomenclatural details of many anamorph- and teleomorph-typified genera of the Nectriaceae, most notably Cosmospora and Fusarium. The combined phylogenetic analysis shows that the present concept of Fusarium is not monophyletic and that the genus divides into two large groups, one basal in the family, the other terminal, separated by a large group of species classified in genera such as Calonectria, Neonectria, and Volutella. All accepted genera received high statistical support in the phylogenetic analyses. Preliminary polythetic morphological descriptions are presented for each genus, providing details of perithecia, micro- and/or macro-conidial synanamorphs, cultural characters, and ecological traits. Eight species are included in our restricted concept of Cosmospora, two of which have previously documented teleomorphs and all of which have Acremonium-like microconidial anamorphs. A key is provided to the three anamorphic species recognised in Atractium, which is removed from synonymy with Fusarium and epitypified for two macroconidial synnematous species and one sporodochial species associated with waterlogged wood. Dialonectria is recognised as distinct from Cosmospora and two species with teleomorph, macroconidia and microconidia are accepted, including the new species D. ullevolea. Seven species, one with a known teleomorph, are classified in Fusicolla, formerly considered a synonym of Fusarium including members of the F. aquaeductuum and F. merismoides species complex, with several former varieties raised to species rank. Originally a section of Nectria, Macroconia is raised to generic rank for five species, all producing a teleomorph and macroconidial anamorph. A new species of the Verticillium-like anamorphic genus Mariannaea is described as M. samuelsii. Microcera is recognised as distinct from Fusarium and a key is included for four macroconidial species, that are usually parasites of scale insects, two of them with teleomorphs. The four accepted species of Stylonectria each produce a teleomorph and micro- and macroconidial synanamorphs. The Volutella species sampled fall into three clades. Pseudonectria is accepted for a perithecial and sporodochial species that occurs on Buxus. Volutella s. str. also includes perithecial and/or sporodochial species and is revised to include a synnematous species formerly included in Stilbella. The third Volutella-like clade remains unnamed. All fungi in this paper are named using a single name system that gives priority to the oldest generic names and species epithets, irrespective of whether they are originally based on anamorph or teleomorph structures. The rationale behind this is discussed. © 2011 CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre. Source

Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica Polm.) were treated with imidacloprid or coumaphos. Significant effects of treatment and treatment duration were found on hypopharyngeal glands (HPG) acinus diameter (P<0.05). Differences in the size of acini were evident in all long term (48 h and 72 h) treatments. Short term (24 h) imidacloprid treatment induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) localisation in nuclei and cytoplasm and Hsp 90 activity was found in most cell cytoplasm. Coumaphos triggered an increased level of programmed cell death, and imidacloprid induced extended necrosis in comparison to coumaphos. In 7-12 day old workers, the level of cell death after 48 hours of imidacloprid treatment was approximately 50% and increased to all cells after 72 hours. Programmed cell death remained at the normal level of approximately 10%. Our results suggest that both pesticide treatments have an influence on the reduced size of HPG and also on the extended expression of cell death. © INRA/DIB-AGIB/EDP Sciences, 2009. Source

Candek-Potokar M.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia | Skrlep M.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia

This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. © 2011 The Animal Consortium. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.4-10 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2014

The on-going negotiations on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements between the EU, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, the accession of Russia to the World Trade Organisation in 2012 and the establishment of a Customs Union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011 are expected to boost trade relations between the European Union and its Eastern Neighbours. The aim of AGRICISTRADE is to accompany these developments by analysing the potential impact of these trade agreements and by delivering insights on the potential developments of the food, feed and biomass sectors in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. AGRICISTRADE contributes to the analysis of the present situation, the potentials and the projection of future agri-food developments. This project will improve the understanding of present agricultural and food processing sectors in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by collecting and evaluating statistical data and related policies. Based on its multidisciplinary expertise the AGRICISTRADE consortium investigates agro-ecological, socio-economic and institutional bottlenecks to exploit the agricultural potentials in CIS and shows the implications of policy interventions for development perspectives of a number of selected supply chains. AGRICISTRADE improves existing biophysical and economic modelling tools enhancing their empirical base and regional representation, and develops a framework for assessing agricultural production and demand potentials in CIS. Modelling tools will be used to quantify and analyse the impact of market developments, technology and policy scenarios on CIS agricultural production, demand and trade, specifically addressing the implications of these scenarios for EU agri-food sector. The project results contribute to a fact-based and well-informed dialogue among EU policy makers on possible impacts of a DCFTA on CIS agricultural development potentials.

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