Agricultural Institute

Shumen, Bulgaria

Agricultural Institute

Shumen, Bulgaria

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Dimov K.,Agricultural Institute | Kalev R.,Agricultural Research Center | Penchev P.,Agricultural Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

To study the composition of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals in beef as affected by silage in the diet, ten male calves were allotted by the analog method into two groups for a period of four months. During the first sub-period (2 mo) the two groups were subjected to one and the same diet, while during the second silage was excluded from the diet fed to the experimental group. At the end of the period, three animals of each group were slaughtered and meat test samples from the ribeye area within ribs 11 and 12 of m. longisimus dorsi taken from each carcass. Higher composition of essential amino acids was established in the meat of the calves fed silage-free, the relative difference in methionine and lysine being respectively 27.8 and 11.1 per cent. Compared to the control group, the meat from the calves fed diet with excluded silage is characterized with more favorable composition of the main omega-3 acid, C18:3, the UFA C18:l, as well as the SFA's palmitic and stearic acid. With regard to mineral composition, the meat produced by the calves from the experimental group has shown to have lower levels of K and higher of Mg, Fe, and Cu than the control group.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.newscientist.com

JUST how much does the world follow laws? The human mind, it seems, may not be the ideal toolkit with which to craft an answer. To understand the world at all, we have to predict likely events and so we have a lot invested in spotting rules, even when they are not really there. Such demands have also shaped more specialised parts of culture. The history of the sciences is one of constant struggle between the accumulation of observations and their abstraction into natural laws. The temptation (especially for physicists) is to assume these laws are real: a bedrock underpinning the messy, observable world. Life scientists, on the other hand, can afford no such assumption. Their field is constantly on the move, a plaything of time and historical contingency. If there is a lawfulness to living things, few plants and animals seem to be aware of it. Consider, for example, the charming “just so” stories in French biologist and YouTuber Léo Grasset’s book of short essays, How the Zebra Got its Stripes. Now and again Grasset finds order and coherence in the natural world. His cost-benefit analysis of how animal communities make decisions, contrasting “autocracy” and “democracy”, is a fine example of lawfulness in action. But Grasset is also sharply aware of those points where the cause-and-effect logic of scientific description cannot show the whole picture. There are, for instance, four really good ways of explaining how the zebra got its stripes, and those stripes arose probably for all those reasons, along with a couple of dozen others whose mechanisms are lost to evolutionary history. And Grasset has even more fun describing the occasions when, frankly, nature goes nuts. Take the female hyena, for example, which has to give birth through a “pseudo-penis”. As a result, 15 per cent of mothers die after their first labour and 60 per cent of cubs die at birth. If this were a “just so” story, it would be a decidedly off-colour one. The tussle between observation and abstraction in biology has a fascinating, fraught and sometimes violent history. In Europe at the birth of the 20th century, biology was still a descriptive science. Life presented, German molecular biologist Gunther Stent observed, “a near infinitude of particulars which have to be sorted out case by case”. Purely descriptive approaches had exhausted their usefulness and new, experimental approaches were developed: genetics, cytology, protozoology, hydrobiology, endocrinology, experimental embryology – even animal psychology. And with the elucidation of underlying biological process came the illusion of control. In 1917, even as Vladimir Lenin was preparing to seize power in Russia, the botanist Nikolai Vavilov was lecturing to his class at the Saratov Agricultural Institute, outlining the task before them as “the planned and rational utilisation of the plant resources of the terrestrial globe”. Predicting that the young science of genetics would give the next generation the ability “to sculpt organic forms at will”, Vavilov asserted that “biological synthesis is becoming as much a reality as chemical”. The consequences of this kind of boosterism are laid bare in Lysenko’s Ghost by the veteran historian of Soviet science Loren Graham. He reminds us what happened when the tentatively defined scientific “laws” of plant physiology were wielded as policy instruments by a desperate and resource-strapped government. Within the Soviet Union, dogmatic views on agrobiology led to disastrous agricultural reforms, and no amount of modern, politically motivated revisionism (the especial target of Graham’s book) can make those efforts seem more rational, or their aftermath less catastrophic. In modern times, thankfully, a naive belief in nature’s lawfulness, reflected in lazy and increasingly outmoded expressions such as “the balance of nature”, is giving way to a more nuanced, self-aware, even tragic view of the living world. The Serengeti Rules, Sean B. Carroll’s otherwise triumphant account of how physiology and ecology turned out to share some of the same mathematics, does not shy away from the fact that the “rules” he talks about are really just arguments from analogy. “If there is a lawfulness to living things, few plants and animals seem to be aware of it” Some notable conservation triumphs have led from the discovery that “just as there are molecular rules that regulate the numbers of different kinds of molecules and cells in the body, there are ecological rules that regulate the numbers and kinds of animals and plants in a given place”. For example, in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique, in 2000, there were fewer than 1000 elephants, hippos, wildebeest, waterbuck, zebras, eland, buffalo, hartebeest and sable antelopes combined. Today, with the reintroduction of key predators, there are almost 40,000 animals, including 535 elephants and 436 hippos. And several of the populations are increasing by more than 20 per cent a year. But Carroll is understandably flummoxed when it comes to explaining how those rules might apply to us. “How can we possibly hope that 7 billion people, in more than 190 countries, rich and poor, with so many different political and religious beliefs, might begin to act in ways for the long-term good of everyone?” he asks. How indeed: humans’ capacity for cultural transmission renders every Serengeti rule moot, along with the Serengeti itself – and a “law of nature” that does not include its dominant species is not really a law at all. Of course, it is not just the sciences that have laws: the humanities and the arts do too. In The Great Derangement, a book that began as four lectures presented at the University of Chicago last year, the novelist Amitav Ghosh considers the laws of his own practice. The vast majority of novels, he explains, are realistic. In other words, the novel arose to reflect the kind of regularised life that gave you time to read novels – a regularity achieved through the availability of reliable, cheap energy: first, coal and steam, and later, oil. No wonder, then, that “in the literary imagination climate change was somehow akin to extraterrestrials or interplanetary travel”. Ghosh is keenly aware of and impressively well informed about climate change: in 1978, he was nearly killed in an unprecedentedly ferocious tornado that ripped through northern Delhi, leaving 30 dead and 700 injured. Yet he has never been able to work this story into his “realist” fiction. His hands are tied: he is trapped in “the grid of literary forms and conventions that came to shape the narrative imagination in precisely that period when the accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere was rewriting the destiny of the Earth”. The exciting and frightening thing about Ghosh’s argument is how he traces the novel’s narrow compass back to popular and influential scientific ideas – ideas that championed uniform and gradual processes over cataclysms and catastrophes. One big complaint about science – that it kills wonder – is the same criticism Ghosh levels at the novel: that it bequeaths us “a world of few surprises, fewer adventures, and no miracles at all”. Lawfulness in biology is rather like realism in fiction: it is a convention so useful that we forget that it is a convention. “In the literary imagination climate change was somehow akin to aliens or interplanetary travel” But, if anthropogenic climate change and the gathering sixth mass extinction event have taught us anything, it is that the world is wilder than the laws we are used to would predict. Indeed, if the world really were in a novel – or even in a book of popular science – no one would believe it. This article appeared in print under the headline “Natural laws, or not”


PubMed | University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and Agricultural Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of animal nutrition | Year: 2016

An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p<0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p<0.05), and DMD (p<0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p<0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p<0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p<0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p<0.001), DMD (p<0.001), NR (p<0.001) and DEE (p<0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p<0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.


Morgounov A.,CIMMYT | Haun S.,CIMMYT | Lang L.,Agricultural Institute | Martynov S.,Vavilov Institute | Sonder K.,CIMMYT
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Key weather parameters (monthly minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation) were extracted for 35 winter wheat breeding sites in central Asia, eastern Europe and Great Plains of USA from 1961 to 2009. Autumn and winter warming happened gradually, over a long period of time, but mostly before 1991. Climate changes after 1991 were mainly expressed through higher temperatures in spring, May, and June. Clear regional differences were observed for air temperature variation. Breeding sites in the USA seemed to be least subjected to climate change. There were no significant linear trends in yearly, seasonal, or monthly precipitation. Changing climates expressed through rising temperatures during critical stages of winter wheat development have already negatively affected yield gains in several countries, especially in eastern Europe. There are some positive changes associated with warmer winters, which may not require additional investment in traits associated with winter survival. Rising temperatures in spring are of particular concern since their effect on yield is negative in some regions. They certainly accelerate wheat development and shift heading to earlier dates. The interaction of higher temperatures in spring with the rate of crop development and yield is a fundamental issue which requires research. Rising temperatures in June are detrimental for grain development and filling and heat tolerance warrants high priority in breeding programs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tanova K.,University of Shumen | Georgieva-Andreeva M.,Agricultural Institute
Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

We have analysed the influence of agrimony water-ethanol extract on the pathogenicity, the aggressiveness and growth of the pathogen the agent of the Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn in fodder beet, sort Pliska. In order to determine the influence of the extract on the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the pathogen we conduct laboratory examination with root crops from the laboratory fields of the institute preliminary processed and non-processed with 10% water solution from extract, injured, not infected and infected with the pathogen. It is established that the preliminary processing decreases Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn with 0.5 grades, it delays the pathogen penetration with 0.5mm/25h and the relative quantity of putrefied mass with 3.5mg/100g. It suppresses the pathogen growth - for seven days the colonies diameter decreases with 2sm, and the dry mycelium mass with 1.5%.


Popov B.,Trakia University | Georgieva S.,Trakia University | Oblakova M.,Agricultural Institute | Bonev G.,Trakia University
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Haberlea rhodopensis extract (HRE) possesses strong antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective ability of HRE against oxidative damage induced by a non-lethal dose of 60Co-γ-rays. Experimental animals (New Zealand rabbits) were exposed to 2.0 Gy ?-rays before and after HRE administration. Lipid peroxidation (MDA) and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed. Results show that administration of HRE before and after irradiation decreased the MDA level and increased SOD and CAT activity, thus providing protection against the radiation-induced decrease in antioxidative ability and increase in lipid peroxidation. This finding supports the idea that HRE is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant.


Sabeva I.,Agricultural Institute | Apostolov A.,Agricultural Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the research was to be established the sources of specific variance and the heritability of the productive life of Shagya broodmares. The data for the length of productive life of 95 broodmares acted at the National stud Kabiuk after 1975 was an object of statistical processing. They were representatives of 8 lines 7 genealogical families and originated from 15 stallions and 63 mares. The analyses of the variance were done by mixed lineal models in which not only the genetic and environmental sources of variation were included, but also the factors: rate of gene plasma from Arabian breed, inbreeding, basic body indices, the exterior estimates and the generational remoteness from the families' founders. The factors inbreeding, grading, massiveness, the exterior estimates and the generational remoteness of mares from the families' founders had decisive influence on the phenotypic variance of the productive life of Shagya broodmares. Typically for all long - term selected breeds of horses, fathers were the main source of genetic variance. With the longest productive life were the mares with Fx from 1.60 to 3.12 %. Estimates over the population average had the Arabian crossbreeds with grading above 50.00%. The superiority of the mares with massiveness above 114% was statistically proven. Average to high heritability of the trait was established (h2 = 0.34).


Slanev K.,Agricultural Institute | Enchev S.,Agricultural Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

The influence of the in-row sowing rate on the green mass productivity in flowering stage of different sorghum x Sudan grass hybrid varieties was studied in 2008-2009. In conditions of significant agro climatic differences in 2008 and 2009 the denser sowings, form higher yield of green and dry mass, and the rainfalls’ distribution is significant for the more favorable structure of yield. The tested varieties and hybrids have high productive potential for stable yields of green mass in drought conditions. © 2014, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. All rights reserved.


Szostak B.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Apostolov A.,Agricultural Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination by biogenic elements on a pig farm. The study was conducted on a pig farm in the Lublin voivodeship. The pigs were housed in group pens with straw. Soil samples were collected from the following locations: the dunghill at distances of 5 and 10 m and the fattening house at distance of 5 and 10 m. Samples were collected from three layers, every 20 cm, to a depth of 60 cm. Following mineralization of the samples in fuming nitric and perchloric acid, determinations were made of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. No increase in these biogenic elements was found in the soil from the farm with respect to their natural content in the soil. Total nitrogen and available phosphorus and potassium in the soil varied by the interaction of the soil layer with the sampling point, distance, and manure storage site. The results of the study confirm that biogenic elements can migrate deep into the soil profile, which in the case of improper manure storage can lead to contamination of the soil and groundwater, particularly by nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. © 2014, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All Rights Reserved.


Szostak B.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Apostolov A.,Agricultural Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of lifetime daily weight gain and body weight at slaughter on the size of ovaries in gilts. The study was carried out on 105 gilts that were crossbred from Polish White Landrace sows and Polish Large White boars and raised on breeding farms. The gilts were divided into three groups according to their growth rate: I-gilts with lifetime daily weight gain of 400-500 g; II-501-600 g; and III-601-700 g. To determine the effect of body weight at slaughter on the condition of the ovaries and on the number of corpora lutea on the ovaries, the gilts were divided into four groups: I-80-90 kg; II-91-100 kg; III-101-110 kg; and IV-111-120 kg. The growth rate of the gilts, measured as lifetime daily weight gain, was found to significantly affect the development of the ovaries (dimensions and weight). The largest parameters were noted for the ovaries of gilts with daily weight gain in the 400-500 g range. The weight of the gilt at slaughter significantly influenced the weight of the ovaries. The greatest ovary weight was observed in the gilts from the 111-120 kg weight group. © 2014, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

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