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Chen Y.-C.,National Taipei University of Technology | Tan C.-H.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center | Wei C.,National Taiwan University | Su Z.-W.,National Taipei University of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Gazor H.R.,Agricultural Engineering Research Institute | Roustapour O.R.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2015

The effects of pretreatment solution (dipping in boiling water, salty boiling water, ethil oleat) were studied on drying kinetic of sour cherry. The thin-layer drying of sour cherries were carried out at three air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C and airflow velocity of 1 m/s. The experimental data were fitted to several thin-layer drying models such as Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page, Logarithmic, Approximate Diffusion, Two-term exponential, and Midilli et al.. Three statistical tools coefficient of determination (R2), reduced chi-square (x2) and root means square error (RMSE) were used to quantify the goodness of fit. According to the results, drying time of sour cherry samples dipped in salty boiling water solution was shorter than the pretreated samples and control treatments. Besids, The Midilli et al. and Logarithmic models were found to be most suitable in describing the drying characteristics of sour cherry respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity of sour cherries based on the analytical solution of Fick's second law ranged from 2.07×10-11 to 2.33×10-10 m2/s. Using of pretreated solutions caused to decreasing activation energy in sour cherry drying process. Activation energy values varied from 23.74 to 83.05 kJ/mol. © All Rights Reserved. Source

Maji S.K.,National Taiwan University | Wang S.-W.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center | Liu C.-W.,National Taiwan University
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

Iron-oxide-coated natural rock (IOCNR) was used as an adsorbent of arsenate, As(V), from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were performed at 25 ± 2°C and pH 5.7 ± 0.2 with agitation at 200 rpm. Based on a batch study, 0.148 mm particles were adopted in this investigation. A 5 g L-1 dose of adsorbent removed ~99.6% As(V) from the aqueous media within a shaking time of 4 h when the initial As(V) concentration was 3 mg L-1. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum adsorptive capacity of IOCNR was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm 16.92 mg g-1. The D-R isotherm revealed the nature of the adsorption process. The dimensionless parameter (RL) and Gibbs free energy changes (ΔGo) suggest that the process is favorable and spontaneous. The study was performed in the presence of different coexisting ions, including organic contaminants, at various pH values of the medium, to determine their effects on the removal of As(V). Film diffusion controlled of the process was evidenced from the Df value and multiple interruption tests. The As(V) removal efficiency (%) was compared with that of the patented adsorbent LEWATIT FO36. Finally, the IOCNR has been applied to remove arsenic from real arsenic-bearing sample. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. Source

Shih Y.-h.,National Chung Hsing University | Tai Y.-t.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) recognized as a new class of environmental persistent toxic contaminants have been distributed widely in the world. In this study, the synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in the laboratory was used to investigate the removal kinetics and mechanisms of decabrominated diphenyl ether (DBDE) at different pH. Within 40 min 90% of DBDE was rapidly removed by NZVI as compared to around 40 d needed for 24-fold weight of microscale ZVI. The removal by NZVI is much faster than that by microscale ZVI due to its high surface area and reactivity. At a different pH, the pseudo-first-order removal rate constants of DBDE linearly increased from 0.016 to 0.024 min-1 with the decreasing of aqueous initial pH values from 10 to 5. The degradation of DBDE with NZVI is favorable in an acid condition. The debromination pathways of DBDE with NZVI were proposed on the basis of the identified reaction intermediates ranging from nona- to mono-brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) for an acid condition and from nona- to penta-BDEs for an alkaline condition. The debromination of PBDEs from para positions is more difficult than that from meta or ortho positions. Adsorption on NZVI also plays a role on the removal of DBDE. These findings can facilitate the treatment and fate prediction of PBDEs with NZVI in the environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liang C.-P.,Fooyin University | Liu C.-W.,National Taiwan University | Jang C.-S.,Kainan University | Wang S.-W.,Agricultural Engineering Research Center | Lee J.-J.,Environmental Protection Administration
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

This paper assesses health risks due to the ingestion of inorganic arsenic from fish and shellfish farmed in blackfoot disease areas by general public in Taiwan. The provisional tolerable weekly intake of arsenic set by FAO/WHO and the target cancer risk assessment model proposed by USEPA were integrated to evaluate the acceptable consumption rate. Five aquacultural species, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), mullet (Mugil cephalus), clam (Meretrix lusoria) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were included. Monte Carlo analysis was used to propagate the parameter uncertainty and to probabilistically assess the health risk associated with the daily intake of inorganic As from farmed fish and shellfish. The integrated risk-based analysis indicates that the associated 50th and 95th percentile health risk are 2.06×10-5 and 8.77×10-5, respectively. Moreover, the acceptable intakes of inorganic As are defined and illustrated by a two dimensional graphical model. According to the relationship between Cinorg and IRf derived from this study, two risk-based curves are constructed. An acceptable risk zone is determined (risk ranging from 1×10-5 to 6.07×10-5) which is recommended for acceptable consumption rates of fish and shellfish. To manage the health risk due to the ingestion of inorganic As from fish and shellfish in BFD areas, a risk-based management scheme is derived which provide a convenient way for general public to self-determine the acceptable seafood consumption rate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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