Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute

Tiruchirappalli, India

Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute

Tiruchirappalli, India
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Mythili R.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Subramanian P.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2016

Bio-oil production from redgram stalk was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor to study the influence of temperature and particle size. The maximum biooil yield of 52.8 %wt was obtained at 450 °C with a particle size of 0.25–0.50 mm. Properties of the biooil were studied and the biooil had more 5a,14a-Androstane-17a-carboxylic acid, 3a,14-dihydroxy-c-lactone, acetate (10.61 %) and phenolic compounds among them 3-pentadecyl phenol was abundant (23.15 %). This feedstock may be a better alternate source for the production of these valuable chemicals for their sustainable production. © 2016, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Mythili R.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute | Venkatachalam P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Subramanian P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Uma D.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2014

Vegetable oil is one of the main first generation liquid biofuels. The fuel characteristics of vegetable oil such as viscosity and atomization cannot be accommodated by existing diesel engines. An alternate process has been developed to improve the fuel characteristics of vegetable oils through the process of alcoholysis to produce a fuel called biodiesel. It can be used in engines as substitute for fossil fuel. This paper reviews the characteristics of different oils available for biodiesel production and the production technologies, engine performance using vegetable oil and biodiesel, and emission studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Gnanaselvi P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Subramanian P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Subramanian P.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

A study was carried out on production of biodiesel from coconut oil using alkali catalyzed transesterification process by two different reactive distillation columns, viz. sieve tray and bubble-cap tray column. Coconut oil with free fatty acid content of 1.2% was used for transesterification. In laboratory scale batch system, among all the variations adopted, it was found that maximum methyl esters yield of 97.7% was obtained with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol-to-oil, 1% NaOH at 60°C reaction temperature. A continuous flow transesterification using sieve tray reactive distillation column yielded 93.75% methyl ester with 5.55 min average reaction time at 65°C under 4:1 molar ratio (methanol-to-oil). The excess alcohol was found to be 11.4 ml. Based on performance evaluation of sieve tray reactive distillation column, a new bubble-cap tray reactive distillation column was designed and developed for continuous biodiesel production. Maximum methyl ester yield was 96.2% with 5.55 min average reaction time at 65°C under 4:1 molar ratio. Excess alcohol was found to be 17.1 ml. Daily average electricity consumption was found to be 13.6 kWh for continuous transesterification biodiesel production and processing cost was worked out as indian rupee sign 26.03. Regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effects of molar ratio and temperature on the yield of methyl esters. The R2 value was 0.87 for sieve tray reactive distillation column and 0.92 for bubble-cap reactive distillation column which confirmed the validity of the predicted model. Based on the findings from the study, it was found out that continuous transesterification was more feasible and efficient way for production of biodiesel. It was concluded that bubble-cap tray reactive distillation column was found to be an effective than sieve tray column due to its increased yield (1 time), excess alcohol recovery (1.5 times) and better fuel properties. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Prabha B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Pugalendhi S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Subramanian P.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute | Subramanian P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The paper describes the development of semi-indirect non-electric pyrolytic reactor of 1 kg capacity and for optimizing production process of biochar from diffferent farm wastes. Biochar was produced through pyrolysis of farm wastes, viz. maize cob, cotton stalk and coconut shell by using Prosopis julifera as a combustion fuel in the pyrolytic reactor. Biochar production from farm waste was optimized with different mass of combustion fuel such as 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kg. Maximum residence time for obtaining maximum yield and characteristics of farm waste and biochar were also investigated. The maximum yield of biochar from maize cob, coconut shell and cotton stalks were found to be 34, 33 and 36% respectively. The optimum combustion and pyrolysis mass ratio was found as 0.5:1 for maize cob and cotton stalk and that of coconut shell was 0.75:1. The mass and energy closure efficiency of the developed pyrolysis unit were found to be 85% and 83% respectively. The organic carbon content of biochar ranged as 67-89% for the selected feed-stocks. The results indicated that the maximum amount of biochar was produced with minimum amount of combustion fuel enhancing low-cost by using the reactor. The developed pyrolytic reactor was found economically viable with payback period of 3.2 years. Through characterization of biomass and biochar, it was found that the reduction of bulk density of biochar output (215-278 kg/m3) compared to raw farm waste (450-500 kg/m3) was beneficial to improve soil health of cultivable land. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Pragalyaashree M.M.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Kailappan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Kailappan R.,Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Physical properties of onion (Allium cepa var aggregatum L.) umbels namely size, shape, bulk density, particle density, angle of repose, frictional properties etc. , were determined as a function of moisture content in the moisture range of 10. 26 to 50. 15% (db). These important physical properties of onion umbels are necessary for the design and development of machines for threshing, cleaning and handling operations of onion umbels. The average length, width and thickness of onion umbels varied from 49. 66 to 50. 24, 47. 20 to 50. 20 and 34. 89 to 37. 69 mm respectively. Average geometric mean diameter of the umbels varied from 43. 01 to 46. 03 mm while sphericity and mass of hundred umbels (M100) increased from 0. 855 to 0. 885 and 267. 36 to 487. 42 g as the moisture content increased in the above range. Bulk density and true density of onion umbels increased from 61. 26 to 156. 12 and 141. 05 to 297. 02 kg/m3respectively for the above said increase in moisture content. Porosity and angle of repose of umbel increased linearly from 45. 95 to 56. 55% and 30. 83 to 38. 13° respectively with increase in moisture content from 10. 26 to 50. 15%. The coefficient of friction of onion umbels also increased linearly with increase in moisture content of umbels on different surfaces. From the investigation on the physical properties of onion umbels, viz. bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, static coefficient of friction on various surfaces, viz. mild steel, rubber sheet, galvanised-iron sheets, aluminium sheets, cardboard sheets and stainless steel sheets increased linearly with increase in the moisture range between 10. 26 to 50. 15% (db).


Selvan M.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ahuja S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Parray R.A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rajaiah P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Software programs on programme evaluation and review techniques (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) techniques have been developed to analyze the major overhauling of modern bulldozers. The knowledge of time and cost involved in a particular repair activity is essential to decide whether to continue the interrupted work and to assess whether or not it is possible to complete field operation within the stipulated time. These techniques identified forty two subsystems or activities. An analytical programme was subsequently worked out for the various operations related to major overhauling of bulldozer. The expected completion of all events required 192 hr with a variance of 8 hr. The analysis revealed that the probability of completing the overhauling ranged from 0.299 to 0.331 for completion duration of 185 to 200 hr respectively. The algorithms developed through software programs for major overhauling of bulldozer proved their superiority in the validation. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

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