Çobanlar, Turkey
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Fortes R.,Agricultural Engineer | Prieto M.H.,Agricultural Engineer | Terron J.M.,Agricultural Engineer | Blanco J.,Agricultural Engineer | Millan S.,Agricultural Engineer
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2014

The use of predictive yield maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. In particular, appropriate placement in the field of organically grown produce, as is the case for the processing tomato crop in this study, will ensure higher crop yield. Accurate estimation of yield can be used to plan the best time for harvesting and transport for industrial processing. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are two tools that can be used to help attain these objectives. Developments in the use of sensors have enabled massive georeferenced data sampling of these parameters. The aim of this article is to assess the ECa and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using geostatistical techniques to optimize their use. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the predictive yield maps developed. EC a was a reasonably good indicator of crop production potential throughout the plot as a whole, but NDVI was the best indicator, offering a better resolution than ECa and a reasonable estimation of yield distribution over the extensive tested crop surface area. © 2014 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.


Kumar A.,COAE and T | Hooda V.S.,COAE and T | Mukesh S.,Agricultural Engineer
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

A two-year field study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 at Karnal (Haryana), to evaluate tillage and crop establishment (TCE) options with an objective to improve yield, water productivity and profitability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The TCE methods had a significant effect on rice yields. Grain yield of mechanically transplanted rice (MTR) in puddled soil was significantly higher (10-22%) than all the other treatments in both the years of study. Conventional till direct seeded rice (CT-DSR) and zero-till direct seeded rice (ZT-DSR) consumed 12-17% less water as compared to puddled transplanted (manual or mechanical) rice during 2011, whereas during 2012, it consumed 5-9% more water than puddled transplanted rice. DSR (CT or ZT) and mechanical transplanting (under both puddled and unpuddled conditions) resulted in a labour saving of 7-8% and 6-12% as compared to manual puddled transplanting, respectively. The benefit: cost ratio was highest in MTR in puddled soil followed by ZT-DSR and was minimum in mechanically transplanted rice in unpuddled soil. Energy output: input ratio was highest in MTR (4.1) in puddled soil followed by manual transplanting (3.7) and was minimum in MTR in unpuddled soil (3.2).


Madi N.,American University of Beirut | Dany M.,Medical University of South Carolina | Abdoun S.,Agricultural Engineer | Usta J.,American University of Beirut
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Introduction: Moringa oleifera (MO) is an important dietary component for many populations in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to its highly nutritious value, almost all parts of this plant have been widely used in folk medicine in curing infectious, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and other diseases. Evidence-based research supported its versatile medicinal properties; however, more rigorous research is required to establish it in cancer therapy. As such, in this study we aim to investigate the in vitro anticancerous effect of Moringa oleifera's aqueous leaf extract. Methods: Moringa extract was prepared by soaking pulverized leaves in hot water mimicking the people's mode of the leaf drink preparation. Several assays were used to study the effect of different percentage concentrations of the extract on viability of A549 cells; levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) generated; as well as percentage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released at different time points. In addition to mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic events were assessed using western blotting for apoptotic markers and immunoflourescent flourescent labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) assay. Results: MO extract treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (1 hour) and ATP levels (3 hours), followed by an increase in (6 hours) ROS, caspase activation, proapoptotic proteins expression (p53, SMAC/Diablo, AIF), and PARP-1 cleavage. This eventually resulted in decreased GSH levels and a decrease in viability. The cytotoxic effect was prevented upon pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. MO decreased as well the viability of HepG2, CaCo2, Jurkat, and HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Our findings identify a plant extract with an anticancerous effect on cancer cell lines. MO extract exerts its cytotoxic effect in A549 cancer cells by affecting mitochondrial viability and inducing apoptosis in an ROS-dependent manner. 2016 © American College of Nutrition


Karayagiz I.,Agricultural Engineer | Bulbul T.,Afyon Kocatepe University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to determine the effects of using canola meal (CM) and sunflower meal (SM) in combination (CS) in quail diets on performance and some carcass quality traits. A total of 300 three-day-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including both males and females were divided into one control group and four treatment groups containing 60 quails in each. Each group was divided into five replicate groups each containing 12 quails. The control group was fed corn-soybean meal based diet without CS. The CS was used at level of 10% (CS10), 20% (CS20), 30% (CS30), and 40% (CS40) in treatment diets (in each treatment C and S ratio is 1:1). The experimental period was lasted for 5 weeks. The results of the study showed that there were no changes in terms of body weight, body weight gain and feed intake as well as carcass weights and yields, relative weight of liver, heart, spleen, gizzard, proventriculus and abdominal fat in all experimental groups with CS supplementation (P>0.05). Feed conversion ratio improved in the CS10 and CS20 groups compared with the control and the other groups (P<0.001). As a result, it may be stated that the combined dietary supplementation of up to 40% of canola-sunflower meal had no any adverse effect on the performance and some carcass quality traits in quails. Copyright 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Turan M.A.,Uludag University | Elkarim A.H.A.,University of Khartoum | Taban N.,Agricultural Engineer | Taban S.,Kastamonu University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

In this study, effect of applied NaCl on shoot and root growth and distribution and accumulation of Na, Cl, N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Mn in shoot and root of the maize plant (Zea mays L. cv: RX 947) was investigated. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) under the greenhouse condition. Sodium chloride was applied at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl. Shoot and root growth of the maize plants was inhibited by salinity and NaCl significantly decreased shoot and root dry mass of maize plants. Sodium chloride caused to increase Na, Cl, P, Zn and Mn concentrations in the shoot and root. Applied NaCl decreased N, Ca and Fe concentrations in the shoot, increased N, Ca and Fe concentrations in the root. Sodium, Cl, N, P, Ca, Fe, Zn and Mn accumulated in the root in according to applied NaCl. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Johnson M.-V.V.,Agronomist | Norfleet M.L.,Soil Scientist | Atwood J.D.,Economist | Behrman K.D.,Research Agronomist | And 4 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to quantify the impacts of agricultural conservation practices at the watershed, regional, and national scales across the United States. Representative cropland acres in all major U.S. watersheds were surveyed in 2003-2006 as part of the seminal CEAP Cropland National Assessment. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender(APEX) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to the survey data to provide a quantitative assessment of current conservation practice impacts, establish a benchmark against which future conservation trends and efforts could be measured, and identify outstanding conservation concerns. The flexibility of these models and the unprecedented amount of data on current conservation practices across the country enabled Cropland CEAP to meet its Congressional mandate of quantifying the value of current conservation practices. It also enabled scientifically grounded exploration of a variety of conservation scenarios, empowering CEAP to not only inform on past successes and additional needs, but to also provide a decision support tool to help guide future policy development and conservation practice decision making. The CEAP effort will repeat the national survey in 2015-2016, enabling CEAP to provide analyses of emergent conservation trends, outstanding needs, and potential costs and benefits of pursuing various treatment scenarios for all agricultural watersheds across the United States. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Farah A.B.,Agricultural Engineer | Gomez-Ramos A.,University of Valladolid
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

The "Europe 2020 Strategy" launched by European Institutions is a commitment to increase growth based on the coexistence of both competitiveness and sustainable development. This paper analyzes the competitiveness of production systems in the cereal steppes of Castile, Spain. An indicator based on each production system's profitability threshold was built. The diagnostic analysis methodology allowed the identification of 20 production system models related to agrarian, livestock and mixed farming systems. The results show very different levels of competitiveness which are not necessarily related to the farms' sizes or capitalization levels but mostly to production costs and the farmers' ages. The response of these models to future input and output price scenarios shows that mixed farms are less dependent on external production factors. © 2014 by the authors.


Turan M.A.,Uludag University | Taban N.,Agricultural Engineer | Turkmen N.,Ankara University | Taban S.,Kastamonu University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to evaluate the selenium concentration of garlic bulbs, which are widely grown in different parts of Turkey. For this purpose, 88 samples of garlic bulbs were collected from eight intensive garlic growing areas of Turkey, namely, Kastamonu (23), Balikesir (18), Kirklareli (11), Mugla (9), Kahramanmaras (8), Karaman (6), Hatay (8) and Antalya (5). The selenium concentrations of the garlic bulbs were determined using ICP-OES techniques. The selenium concentrations in the dry and fresh weight of garlic bulbs were determined as being in the ranges 1.85-9.33 mg/kg and 0.46-2.33 mg/kg, respectively. The overall average of the 88 samples was found to be 3.87 mg/kg in dry weight and 0.97 mg/kg in fresh weight. As a result, the garlic bulbs from Kastamonu showed the highest selenium concentration, which indicates that the recommended dietary allowance of selenium, 70 micrograms, could be supplied by these garlic bulbs.


Sims B.G.,Engineering for Development | Thierfelder C.,CIMMYT | Kienzle J.,Agricultural Engineer | Friedrich T.,Agricultural Engineer | Kassam A.,University of Reading
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2012

Smallholder farmers in many sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are limited by farm power shortages. One way of reducing the constraint, and also the negative impacts of conventional tillage (with hoe and plow), is to practice conservation agriculture (CA) which uses no-till techniques to establish crops. CA can be practiced on small areas with rudimentary tools (a pointed stick to plant) and manual weed control methods. But to expand the area cropped, some mechanization is needed. The necessary equipment can include draft animal powered (DAP) rippers, sprayers, and no till (NT) planters, and maybe knife rollers along with manual jab planters and herbicide applicators. Development of CA equipment for smallholder farmers has been particularly impressive in Brazil where farmers, manufacturers, researchers, and the public sector have been instrumental in developing a flourishing CA machinery industry. Some of this equipment has been promoted in SSA and there is now a demand for locally manufactured equipment geared towards national and regional markets. There is now a budding industry in East Africa as result of exposure to Brazilian equipment and specialist technical training of East Africans in South America. Machinery being manufactured commercially includes DAP rippers and NT planters, manual jab planters, and sprayers. The industry continues to grow and mature and is now addressing the CA equipment needs for imported two-wheel tractors. In southern Africa there has been development of NT planters in Zimbabwe and this continues to prosper, with DAP NT planters currently being produced commercially in the private sector in collaboration with international researchers. Zambia is proceeding along the same track for farmers with access to DAP. For those with access only to manual labor, the chaka hoe for basin-based CA has been developed and manufactured commercially and has become a popular and viable solution. South Africa, despite its huge potential, seems to be a slow starter in the smallholder-oriented CA machinery market. Some progress has been made with planters and sprayers, but a great deal more can be achieved in the immediate future. This article contrasts the Brazilian and SSA situations and draws lessons and guidelines for the development of the CA equipment industry in SSA. The conclusions indicate that, although the industry in SSA is still in its infancy, there is good potential for support from international donors. Local adaptations are needed for local markets, materials, and skills and national governments can play a key role in supporting and promoting CA. Now is precisely the moment for decisive action. © 2012 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

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