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Alemayehu B.,Christian Relief and Development Association CRDA | Bogale A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Wollny C.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences | Tesfahun G.,Agricultural Economist
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Based on a survey data collected from150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Joy E.J.M.,University of Nottingham | Joy E.J.M.,British Geological Survey | Stein A.J.,Agricultural Economist | Young S.D.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2015

Background: In this review, we examine the potential of Zn-enriched fertilisers to alleviate human dietary Zn deficiency. The focus is on ten African countries where dietary Zn supply is low and where fertiliser subsidies are routinely deployed on cereal crops.Scope: Dietary Zn supply and deficiency prevalence were quantified from food supply and composition data. Typical effects of soil (granular) and foliar Zn applications on Zn concentrations in maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains were based on a systematic literature review. Reductions in disease burdens attributable to Zn deficiency and cost-effectiveness were estimated using a disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) approach.Conclusions: Baseline Zn supply in 2009 ranged from 7.1 (Zambia) to 11.9 (Mali) mg capita−1 day−1; prevalence of Zn deficiency ranged from 24 (Nigeria) to 66 % (Zambia). In reviewed studies, soil Zn application led to an increase in median Zn concentration in maize, rice and wheat grains of 23, 7 and 19 %; foliar application led to increases of 30, 25 and 63 %. Enriching granular fertilisers within current subsidy schemes would be most effective in Malawi, reducing DALYs lost due to Zn deficiency by 10 %. The cost per DALY saved ranged from US$ 624 to 5893 via granular fertilisers and from US$ 46 to 347 via foliar fertilisers. Foliar applications are likely to be more cost effective than soil applications due to fixation of Zn in the soil but may be more difficult to deploy. Zinc fertilisation is likely to be less cost-effective than breeding in the longer term although other micronutrients such as selenium could be incorporated. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Joy E.J.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ahmad W.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Zia M.H.,Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd | Zia M.H.,University of Nottingham | And 8 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Background and aims: Use of zinc (Zn) fertilisers may be cost-effective in increasing crop yields and in alleviating dietary Zn deficiency. However, Zn fertilisers are underutilised in many countries despite the widespread occurrence of Zn-deficient soils. Here, increased Zn fertiliser-use scenarios were simulated for wheat production in Punjab and Sindh Provinces, Pakistan. Inputs and outputs were valued in terms of both potential yield gains as well as health gains in the population. Methods: The current dietary Zn deficiency risk of 23.9 % in Pakistan was based on food supply and wheat grain surveys. “Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost” are a common metric of disease burden; an estimated 245,000 DALYs y−1 are lost in Punjab and Sindh due to Zn deficiency. Baseline Zn fertiliser-use of 7.3 kt y−1 ZnSO4.H2O was obtained from published and industry sources. The wheat area currently receiving Zn fertilisers, and grain yield responses of 8 and 14 % in Punjab and Sindh, respectively, were based on a recent survey of >2500 farmers. Increased grain Zn concentrations under Zn fertilisation were estimated from literature data and converted to improved Zn intake in humans and ultimately a reduction in DALYs lost. Results: Application of Zn fertilisers to the area currently under wheat production in Punjab and Sindh, at current soil: foliar usage ratios, could increase dietary Zn supply from ~12.6 to 14.6 mg capita−1 d−1, and almost halve the prevalence of Zn deficiency, assuming no other changes to food consumption. Gross wheat yield could increase by 2.0 and 0.6 Mt. grain y−1 in Punjab and Sindh, respectively, representing an additional return of US$ >800 M and an annual increased grain supply of 19 kg capita−1. Conclusions: There are potential market- and subsidy-based incentives to increase Zn fertiliser-use in Pakistan. Benefit-Cost Ratios (BCRs) for yield alone are 13.3 and 17.5 for Punjab and Sindh, respectively. If each DALY is monetised at one to three fold Gross National Income per capita on purchasing power parity (GNIPPP), full adoption of Zn fertiliser for wheat provides an additional annual return of 405–1216 M International Dollars (I$) in Punjab alone, at a cost per DALY saved of I$ 461–619. © 2016 The Author(s)


Ali A.,Agricultural Economist | Bahadur Rahut D.,CIMMYT | Erenstein O.,CIMMYT
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2016

The main purpose of this article is to estimate the impact of the direct rice sowing (DRS) technology on irrigation water saving in the Indo-Gangetic plains. For this study, a comprehensive data set was collected from the ricewheat area of the Pakistani Punjab. In total, 238 farmers were interviewed from the three major rice-producing districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad. The empirical analysis was carried out by employing the propensity score matching approach to correct for potential sample selection bias that may arise due to systematic differences between the participants and non-participants. The empirical results indicate that the DRS technology is a water saving technology and, on average, the adopters need four less irrigation as compared to the traditional transplanting method. The DRS technology is also labour saving and requires less labour than the conventional rice sowing technology. The water productivity of the DRS technology is also higher as compared to the conventional transplanting method. The DRS technology also has a beneficial yield impact on the subsequent wheat crop. However, the major problem with the DRS technology is weed infestation which needs to be addressed. Farm size analysis indicates that DRS technology has a positive impact for all farmers and particularly on the small and medium scale farmers. © IWA Publishing 2016.


Rahut D.B.,Wheat Improvement Center | Behera B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Ali A.,Agricultural Economist
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This paper uses data from three Bhutan Living Standard surveys (BLSS 2003, BLSS 2007, and BLSS 2012) to examine the trends and patterns of household energy consumption, and identify and analyze the factors that influence household energy choices, consumption intensity and the per capita household expenditure on energy sources in Bhutan. During the last decade significant numbers of Bhutanese households have switched to cleaner energy sources. Empirical results show that a household's choice of cleaner energy sources is driven by income level and household wealth, the age, gender and education of the household heads, access to electricity, and location. Education and income have a differential role on the choice of clean or dirty fuel; wealthier and more educated households use and rely more on clean sources of energy like electricity and liquid petroleum gas while poorer households use and rely on dirty fuel such as fuelwood and kerosene. The study shows that female-headed households are more likely to choose cleaner fuels and, above all, the availability of a clean and cost-effective source of energy within proximity to the household is an important factor in the adoption of clean energy. Several models using a variety of alternative independent variables, such as proxies for education and wealth, were estimated and confirmed the robustness of the results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Biamah E.K.,University of Nairobi | Kiio J.,Agricultural Economist | Kogo B.,Environmental and Biosystems Engineer
Developments in Earth Surface Processes | Year: 2013

In Kenya, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been used to ensure that environmental management is integrated into project planning and decision-making with a view of achieving ecologically sustainable development. Best-practice EIA identifies environmental risks, lessens resource use conflicts by promoting community participation, minimizes adverse environmental effects, informs decision-makers, and helps lay the base for environmentally sound projects. In the integration of an EIA, due considerations are made in all stages of a project, from exploration and planning through construction, operations, decommissioning, and beyond site closure. Therefore, this chapter brings out an in-depth understanding of the EIA in the Kenyan context. Some of the key issues looked into are the goals and principles of the EIA, the EIA process, public consultation and participation in environmental assessment, social dimensions in environmental assessment, and the legislative and regulatory framework for environmental management in Kenya. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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