Jongeneel R.,Wageningen University |
Jongeneel R.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Polman N.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Slangen L.,Wageningen University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2012
This paper analyses the financial and economic costs and benefits of the large scale National Ecological Network (NEN) nature conservation project in the Netherlands, taking into account transaction costs and land market impacts of different institutional arrangements. The net financial costs associated with achieving the current plan are equivalent with an annual amount €876 per hectare. Of the costs, transaction costs amount about 16% or €140 per hectare. The substantive land purchases involved in the plan will lead to land price increase of 20%. Nature management by agriculture turns out to be a relatively cheap option. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Rodrigues-Filho S.,University of Brasilia |
Lindoso D.P.,University of Brasilia |
Bursztyn M.,University of Brasilia |
Brouwer F.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013
The current need for assessing sustainable processes and states is a driving assumption for this article, having as objective to present preliminary results of a new assessment approach, the Compass of Sustainability (CompasSus), applied to administrative regions of Brazil. Its methodological approach is based on a combination of existing assessment methodologies, such as the Human Development Index and the Ecological Footprint. CompasSus is elaborated under the perspective of rather complementary operational concepts of sustainable development, namely weak and strong sustainability, which are often seen as competing ones. In spite of the advances on the perspective of sustainable development perceived in international agreements for conservation of nature, as well as in the implementation of national policies aiming at sustainability, there still exists an operational ambiguity of the concept of sustainability. Thus, its fuzzy theoretical consolidation for clear definition of objectives and lines of action still leads to different assumptions for diverse stakeholders and authors. Looking at the Brazilian case, conservation strategies are needed to protect the world's largest tropical rainforest against a predatory business - as-usual frontier expansion. As for addressing trade-offs between environmental conservation and regional development demands the CompasSus introduces a combined hemispheric assessment of sustainability. In 2006, the state in which the sustainability index had the best performance was DF (Distrito Federal). This, the seat of the capital city, presents an economy based on the public and the service sectors, both very little carbon and energy intensive. Furthermore, the high income per capita, and good social indicators associated with the small relevance of the agrarian sector grants it the best sustainability index, which is determined by performances in two components representing strong and weak sustainability. In the other extreme is São Paulo (SP) where a high population density and major impacts on waterways have implied a worse performance in weak sustainability index, whereas the high consumption of energy together with high carbon emissions have also determined a low performance in strong sustainability index. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Keskin G.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Tatlidil F.F.,Ankara University |
Dellal I.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2010
The aim of this study is to determine the unit production cost and labor force productivity of tomato in the main production regions. The main material of the study consists of the data compiled by survey studies implemented in provincial directorates of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As a result of the study, the unit product cost is calculated minimum with 0.10-0.11 YTL/kg in the provinces where industrial tomato production is a widespread activity. The unit cost in table tomato production is minimum in the province of Eskisehir with a value of 0.16 YTL/kg and maximum in the province of Antalya, where production under greenhouse conditions is a widespread activity, with a value of 0.45 YTL/kg. Labor force productivity is maximum in the provinces of Bursa and Antalya and minimum in the province of Balikesir, where tomato is not planted in rotation with other products and where tomato agriculture suffers from various diseases.
de Lauwere C.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
van Asseldonk M.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
van 't Riet J.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
de Hoop J.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
ten Pierick E.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Livestock Science | Year: 2012
Improving animal welfare in livestock farming requires changing the behaviour of many stakeholders. Farmers have to take proper actions on their farm to improve animal welfare, retailers have to market animal-friendly products and consumers have to purchase these products. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is a widely applied model that can be used to explain behaviour related to conscious choices. The model also gives indications for possible interventions needed to stimulate desired behaviour. In the current study the behaviour of farmers with respect to the change to group housing for pregnant sows was explored. A computer-assisted personal interviewing approach was applied to elicit behavioural beliefs of 105 farmers. Data analysis revealed that TPB was useful for understanding the farmers' choices with regard to the change to group housing, and that it provides indications for possible interventions to support farmers who have not yet changed to group housing. In contrast to farmers who had made the change already, these farmers thought that it was unlikely that group housing was good for animal welfare, and, related to that, that it was likely that it would lead to more tail biting and less work pleasure. They also perceived to a lesser degree that persons relevant to them expected them to change to group housing or that farmers comparable to them had already changed. Additionally, farmers who had not changed yet and farmers who had changed partly had lower scores for questions related to their skills with regard to the managing of group-housed sows and their knowledge about the required building process. So, providing these farmers with information to increase their knowledge with regard to group-housed sows and the required building process might be a fruitful intervention. However, it should be carefully considered how this information is effectively communicated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ton G.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Klerkx L.,Wageningen University |
de Grip K.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Rau M.-L.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Food Policy | Year: 2015
Grant funds specifically targeted to smallholder farmers to facilitate innovation are a promising agricultural policy instrument. They stimulate smallholders to experiment with improved practices, and to engage with research, extension and business development services providers. However, evidence on impact and effectiveness of these grants is scarce. Partly, because attribution of changes in practices and performance to the grant alone is challenging, and the grant is often invested in innovation processes that benefitted from other support in the past. We discuss three modalities: vouchers, business development matching grants and farmer-driven innovation support funds. Our review points to an important and transversal outcome area of innovation grant systems: the creation of human and social capital to sustain creative thinking and innovative practices. Harmonising measurement on these outcomes could enhance the usefulness and comparability of impact studies and facilitate benchmarking of different policy options for smallholder innovation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Keskin G.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Dellal I.,Ankara University
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2011
The aim of this paper is to analyse economic sustainability of sunflower production of farmers by comparing farm size, input use level, productivity and gross margin in the Thrace region of Turkey. To reach this aim the primary data were collected by survey with farmers whose main activity was sunflower production in the Thrace region. Edirne, Kirklareli and Tekirdag provinces were selected for representing the region and 80 survey were done by pollsters. The farms were separated in 3-size groups as to its sunflower area sown as small, middle, big farms. According to research results, it was found that wheat-sunflower crop rotation was made by all farms and gross margin in wheat production was higher than sunflower. Sustainability for sunflower production in this region does not depend only on economic parameters, but also on farmer attitudes, necessity of crop rotation and institutional infrastructure.
Liontakis A.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute |
Tzouramani I.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016
During the last decade, an encouraging environment for the restructuring and modernization of the agricultural sector has formed in Greece. The diversification into higher-value crops can be a promising option for small and average-sized farms, particularly during the current economic crisis. One of the most promising alternative crops that have been recently established in Greece is the organic Aloe vera crop. The main advantage of this crop is that it can utilize poor farmlands and, therefore, can facilitate rural development in marginal areas. This study explores the economic sustainability of the Aloe vera crop, considering the embedded risk and uncertainty. The results indicate that organic aloe farming is a promising alternative to "traditional" crops in Greece, particularly for family farms in rural areas. In contrast, this activity is not advisable to the most entrepreneurial type of farmers, unless their crop size allows economies of scales. Finally, the Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF) analysis associates farmers' risk attitude with their willingness to be involved in organic Aloe vera farming. SERF analysis highlights the crucial role of farmers' risk aversion and concludes that, above a certain level of risk aversion, farmers have no incentive to adopt this economic activity. © 2016 by the authors.
Chaddad F.,University of Missouri |
Iliopoulos C.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Agribusiness | Year: 2013
Agricultural cooperatives have changed considerably in recent decades. In witnessing these structural changes, scholars have proffered analyses of nontraditional ownership models focusing on residual claim rights. However, crucial information on the allocation of control rights in cooperatives is missing. This study sheds light on alternative ownership-control models adopted by agricultural cooperatives in different regions across the world. In each of these models, we describe the allocation of formal control rights with a focus on decision management and decision control rights. We thus provide empirical evidence on the "separation of ownership and control" in agricultural cooperatives. We also analyze each of the governance models in terms of the associated ownership costs, including risk-bearing costs, the costs of controlling managers, and collective decision-making costs. In doing so, we are able to better understand the forces influencing the organizational efficiency of each cooperative model. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hamada Y.M.,Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Agribusiness | Year: 2014
Drought as a natural phenomenon, due to variability of meteorological conditions, strikes worldwide but the severity of its impact depends on the vulnerabilities of water supply systems and economical and sectors as well as on the effectiveness of the adopted mitigation measures. The aim of this paper is to study achieving efficiency and equity in sugar factories and sugar-cropping patterns in Upper and Middle Egypt by focusing on the Strategic Water Shortage Preparedness Plan, introduction methodologies, and specific action to fight drought within the general water-planning framework. The Linear Programming Model was applied to calculate the sugar crops, sugar cane and sugar beet acreage, production, and income of both Upper and Middle Egypt. As a result of an optimal cropping pattern, the cultivation season would lose acreage by 7.260%, farm income increase by 1.774%, water uses decrease by 18.511%, and CO2 emission and energy reduced by 14.96%. Overall, as a result of an optimal sugar-cropping pattern, Egyptian sugar exports would decrease by $130.086 million US. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011
The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental effects of pig production and possibilities at farm level to limit these effects. According to the EC Nitrate Directive the application of animal manure should not exceed 170 kg N/ha. Supply of animal manure in the 12 European member states exceeds 170 kg N per ha, approximately 13% of the number of holdings. The production of nitrogen from animal manure at member state level exceeds 170 kg N/ha in Belgium and The Netherlands. The performance and mineral excretion per sow and per fattening pig on Dutch farms in 1995 were estimated using data from 362 sow farms and 631 farms with growing-finishing pigs. Average annual P(2)O(5) excretion per sow and per fattening pig amounted to 14.0 and 5.0 kg year(-1), respectively. Average annual N-excretion per sow and per fattening pig amounted to 30.8 and 13.1 kg/ year respectively. Observed differences between farms in annual mineral excretion per animal are large. Farms with low annual mineral excretion have better productivity figures. The possibilities of reducing the mineral excretion are mainly dependent on the onset of the situation. In many cases lowering the mineral content in the feed alone will not be sufficient. There are possibilities for reducing the mineral excretion level but it takes time to implement the appropriate measures and they are not feasible for all farms. The emission of ammonia from animals which is produced in the barn can only be reduced by allowing new housing systems that meet specific environmental requirements. The emission of ammonia can be diminished by reducing the emitting surface, the slurry temperature, the air movement above the emission surface, the N contents and the pH of the slurry. Over the last few years, low emission housing systems for each pig category have been developed.