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Prins A.G.,Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | Eickhout B.,Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL | Eickhout B.,Parliament | Banse M.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2011

Food supply and food distribution have been and are important issues in the global political arena. The recent emergence of biofuel policies has increased the influence of the policy arena on agricultural production. In this paper we show the regional impact of changes in the European Common Agricultural Policy and biofuel policy. Shifting trade patterns, changes in agricultural production, and expansion of agricultural area or intensification of agriculture result in changes in land use and land use emissions. Higher prices for agricultural crops on the world market together with changing production raise agricultural income. Brazil is the region the most affected. The results show that arrangements or policies will be needed to avoid negative impacts in other regions of changing agricultural or biofuel policies in the European Union. © 2011 by the author(s).


Tieguhong J.C.,Bioversity International | Ingram V.,Agricultural Economics Institute LEI | Ingram V.,Center for International Forestry Research | Mala W.A.,University of Yaounde I | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

Non-timber forest products (NTFP) comprise a diversity of natural resources that support livelihoods of those along the chain from harvester to traders. The Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) recognises the importance of NTFPs in alleviating poverty and conserving biodiversity and has proposed directives to aid member states to implement appropriate regulations. Data on the regulations governing the chain and its impacts were collected from literature, 12 small and medium enterprises trading an NTFP known as okok (Gnetum spp.) from the production forests to the port of export in Cameroon, and workshops. Laws were bureaucratically, arbitrarily and weakly implemented and enforced. Of 18,368 financial transactions recorded, 81% were bribes, comprising 34% of trader's costs. Corruption in the permit system further creates high transaction costs, negative environmental impacts due to illegal and over-exploitation, and reduces government revenues. The regulatory framework does not promote an enabling business environment. Improvements in governance are imperative if the economic impact upon the livelihoods of thousands of people in the chain is to be maintained and enhanced to ensure sustainable trade. Recommendations to improve the sector in Cameroon include revisions in the regulatory framework and its implementation to increase transparency and counter corruption. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Tieguhong J.C.,Bioversity International | Ingram V.,Agricultural Economics Institute LEI | Mala W.A.,University of Yaounde I | Ndoye O.,FAO NWFP | Grouwels S.,FAO
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

Non-timber forest products (NTFP) comprise a diversity of natural resources that support livelihoods of those along the chain from harvester to traders. The Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) recognises the importance of NTFPs in alleviating poverty and conserving biodiversity and has proposed directives to aid member states to implement appropriate regulations. Data on the regulations governing the chain and its impacts were collected from literature, 12 small and medium enterprises trading an NTFP known as okok (Gnetum spp.) from the production forests to the port of export in Cameroon, and workshops. Laws were bureaucratically, arbitrarily and weakly implemented and enforced. Of 18,368 financial transactions recorded, 81% were bribes, comprising 34% of trader's costs. Corruption in the permit system further creates high transaction costs, negative environmental impacts due to illegal and over-exploitation, and reduces government revenues. The regulatory framework does not promote an enabling business environment. Improvements in governance are imperative if the economic impact upon the livelihoods of thousands of people in the chain is to be maintained and enhanced to ensure sustainable trade. Recommendations to improve the sector in Cameroon include revisions in the regulatory framework and its implementation to increase transparency and counter corruption. © 2015.


Soboh R.A.M.E.,Agricultural Economics Institute LEI | Oude Lansink A.,Wageningen University | Van Dijk G.,Wageningen University
Agribusiness | Year: 2011

The European dairy industry is facing a number of challenges related to policy changes and global trends that add pressure on their economic performance. This study uses logistic regression to analyze differences in financial and performance indicators between European dairy cooperatives and investor-owned firms. The investigated indicators are profitability, debt, operational efficiency, equity growth, size, and country dummies. The empirical application uses data from 170 European dairy firms. Cooperatives are on average less profitable, operate more efficiently, and have a stronger financial position than investor-owned firms. Using the above-mentioned financial and performance indicators, cooperatives appear to be well equipped to cope with the challenges ahead. [EconLit citations: Q13; M12; C25]. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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