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Pālampur, India

Mari F.M.,Agricultural Economics | Memon Y.,Management Development Center
IAHS-AISH Publication

Spate irrigation systems are unique to semi-arid environments. The earthen diversion weirs are constructed across the hill torrents to regulate the water for various uses including agriculture and groundwater recharging through field channels. These channels carry flood water to the command areas for field irrigation. Communities using traditional technology usually build these diversion structures and weirs and the water conveyance systems. Communities' labour contribution is proportional to the size of the land on the spate river, command area or their water share. The spate irrigation system, despite its large coverage and economic importance in Pakistan, is a relatively overlooked area, which is less understood even amongst technical experts. Thus, its development, water regulations and rights, as well as the land and water tenure systems, are yet to be developed and defined. The aim of the paper is to explore and document various aspects and dimensions of spate farming in Sindh province, Pakistan. Copyright © 2011 IAHS Press. Source

Eshghi F.,Agricultural Economics | Khorasani Amoli M.,Shomal University | Chaman F.,Islamic Azad University | Mansouri S.,Islamic Azad University
Life Science Journal

The main goal of this research is to study whether is there any relationship between the criteria of earning management through real activities (non-ordinary cash flow, non-ordinary production and non-ordinary arbitrary costs) and cash flow operation? Statistical population of the present research is all companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange which 103 companies were selected by randomized sampling method. Regarding to that the collected data for hypotheses were of combined data kind; panel analysis method and the integrated least squares regression were used to test the hypotheses and to estimate the coefficients. Research results indicate that at confidence level of 95 percent, there is a relationship between the criteria of earning management through real activities and cash flow operation and this relationship is of the inverted kind. Source

Crawled News Article
Site: http://cleantechnica.com

A new study from Oklahoma State University has found that wind energy projects in the western part of the state are bringing hundreds of millions of dollars in tax revenue into local county coffers and school districts — while also increasing the state’s energy independence. Wind energy companies have reportedly paid almost $134 million in ad valorem taxes in the state since 2004 — thereby boosting the economic resources of a great many rural counties, according to Shannon Ferrell, a professor in Oklahoma State University’s Department of Agricultural Economics. As an example, Roger Mills County (population a little more than 3,700) has received the biggest boost in property tax dollars to date, having received around $25.9 million from the wind energy industry so far. A press release on the subject provides more: Woodward County was second highest with $13.1 million from the wind industry, but Ferrell predicts those revenues will swell to $166.8 million over the lifetime of its wind farms. Garfield County has fared well, too, picking up $6.9 million in taxes from the farms. Ferrell estimates the county will see $69.1 million in revenue from wind systems. Ferrell said his study is the first to measure the impact of the fast-growing wind industry on more rural counties, and how it co-exists with other key sectors vying for the same space. He hopes the study helps lawmakers shape policy decisions, he said. Even as oil and gas companies close wells due to plunging prices, the wind industry thrives, Ferrell told a roomful of people Tuesday at an event put on by the Association of Energy Engineers and the Oklahoma Renewable Energy Council. “Having these turbines in rural areas really makes an impact on those county budgets,” Ferrel stated. “I think that’s the biggest sign that wind has arrived in Oklahoma.” Oklahoma currently receives roughly 17% of its electricity via wind energy projects. There are around 2153 wind turbines currently operational there. Image: wind turbines in Oklahoma by Marcy Reiford (some rights reserved)    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

Crawled News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

The agricultural economists examined how the development of corn stover for cellulosic ethanol would affect corn and soybean markets and the traditional corn-soybean crop rotation in the United States. Corn stover is considered a "second-generation" biofuel feedstock because it involves transforming the cellulosic material in the stover to biofuels instead of using the corn starch as in conventional corn ethanol. "If second-generation biofuels became economically viable and a massive amount of biofuels were produced from agricultural residue, this could have a major impact on the agricultural commodity markets," said energy policy specialist Wallace Tyner, the James and Lois Ackerman Professor of Agricultural Economics and a co-author of the research report. Also on the team were lead author Farzad Taheripour, a research associate professor, and graduate student Julie Fiegel. "The development of second-generation biofuels is critically important to advancing the biofuels industry, Taheripour said. "First-generation biofuels, produced from food crops, will not be able to replace a large portion of the oil-based liquid fuels because a rapid expansion in these biofuels could have adverse impacts on our food supply." If technology and government support become economically viable, converting corn stover to biofuels would affect the profitability of corn production compared with other crops and also the crop rotation practices in the Midwest, the researchers said. There likely would be more continuous corn versus the traditional corn-and-soybean rotation. Also, corn and soybean production would expand to areas other than the historic Corn Belt. The researchers concluded that the supply of stover-based bio-gasoline would be very limited at low levels of crude oil prices in particular when the government does not support bio-gasoline production. But with a bio-gasoline subsidy of $1.01 per gallon, the market would produce significant amounts of bio-gasoline, especially at medium and higher crude prices. The researchers projected that with a viable corn stover market and stover at a farm price of $85.40 a ton, a large majority of farmers would find it profitable to harvest stover. If converting corn stover to biofuel becomes profitable, either because of market forces or government supports, then farmers would consider revenue from both stover and corn in making planting decisions, the researchers said. If the joint profits from corn and corn stover are higher than from soybean production, the researchers said farmers likely would grow more corn. Explore further: New research says corn is most profitable cellulosic biofuel crop in Michigan More information: "Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Crop Rotation," www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/sar/article/view/54396/28954

Pathania M.S.,Agricultural Economics | Sharma S.K.,Agricultural Economics
Indian Journal of Animal Research

The present study was conducted in the hilly region of himachal pradesh which revealed that the area under forests in different forest circles decreased over time. The migratory livestock population decreased over period. The availability of grazing lands for migratory animals was higher than the recommended level except in Dharmsala forest circle. The higher pressure on grazing lands was noticed when animal grazed by local people were also considered. The loss of plantation in grazing lands varied from Rs. 268.44 lac to Rs. 285.04 lac in different forest circles over the years. The income generated from migratory animals through wool, milk, meat and FYM was Rs. 44.76 lac in Dharmsala forest circle in 1990-91 to Rs. 775 lac in Chamba during 1999-2000. Besides this, employment of 16,560 man days was also generated in the state through this profession. It was suggested that with increase in human and livestock population, the demand for Common Property Land Resources (CPRs) products has increased which calls for better management of CPRs. The weeds infestation is causing an additional stress and resource competition. Therefore, there is a need to frame a comprehensive policy to eradicate the weeds and to increase the productivity of grasses and income of local people. In the plantation programmes, preferences should be given to locally acceptable multi-purpose tree species. Source

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