Punithavalli M.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute |
Muthukrishnan N.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Rajkuma M.B.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Rice Science | Year: 2013
The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311) and wild rice genotypes ( Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis). A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa) protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.
Cibichakravarthy B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Preetha R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Sundaram S.P.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Kumar K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Balachandar D.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012
This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h-1 mg protein-1. The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Prema P.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Murugan D.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis | Year: 2016
Weed management is the most significant process in the agricultural applications to improve the crop productivity rate and reduce the herbicide application cost. Existing weed detection techniques does not yield better performance due to the complex background and illumination variation. Hence, there arises a need for the development of effective weed identification technique. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel Angular Texture Pattern (ATP) Extraction Method for crop and weed discrimination using curvelet transformation. In our proposed work, Adaptive Median Filter (AMF) is used for filtering the impulse noise from the image. Plant image identification is performed using green pixel extraction and K-means clustering. Wrapping based Curvelet transform is applied to the plant image. Feature extraction is performed to extract the angular texture pattern of the plant image. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based Differential Evolution Feature Selection (DEFS) approach is applied to select the optimal features. Then, the selected features are learned and passed through an RVM-based classifier to find out the weed. Edge detection and contouring is performed to identify the weed in the plant image. The fuzzy rule-based approach is applied to detect the low, medium and high levels of the weed patchiness. From the experimental results, it is clearly observed that the accuracy of the proposed approach is higher than the existing Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approaches. The proposed approach achieves higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Hausdorff distance, Jaccard distance and Dice distance.
Weon H.-Y.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Yoo S.-H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Kim S.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Kim Y.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2010
Two Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria (strains 5317J-18 T and 5414S-25T) were isolated from air samples collected in the Jeju Island and Suwon region of Korea, respectively. Phylogenetically, strain 5317J-18T was grouped with the genus Massilia with Massilia brevitalea byr23-80T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). Strain 5414S-25T was affiliated with the genus Naxibacter with Naxibacter haematophilus CCUG 38318T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 5317J-18T and M. brevitalea DSM 18925T and Massilia aurea DSM 18055T were 43 and 36 %, respectively. The mean DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 5414S-25T and N. haematophilus KACC 13771T, M. brevitalea DSM 18925T, Massilia timonae DSM 16850T, Naxibacter varians KACC 13770 T, M. aurea DSM 18055T, Massilia lutea DSM 17473 T and Massilia albidiflava DSM 17472T ranged from 33 to 42 %. Both novel strains had ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C 16:1 ω7c) and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. Both strains also showed similar polar lipid profiles with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T were 66.1 and 67.8 %, respectively. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new strains represent novel species in the genera Massilia and Naxibacter. Strain 5317J-18T (=KACC 12634 T=DSM 21309T) is proposed as the type strain of Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and strain 5414S-25T (=KACC 12635T=DSM 21311T) is proposed as the type strain of Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov. © 2010 IUMS.
Adlin Pricilla Vasanthi E.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Rajavel D.S.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2016
Field efficacy of sesamin was tested against the termites, Odontotermes wallonensis (Isoptera: Termitidae) in groundnut between February to May, 2012 in Kovilangulam village, Tamil Nadu. Sesamin 1000 ppm, 900 ppm, 800 ppm, 700 ppm and 600 ppm were soil drenched in groundnut field @ 1000 ml/acre. A standard synthetic chemical insecticide, Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC was used as a reference product and untreated control plot was also maintained. The effects of sesamin on pod damage (PD) and pod scarification (PS) were assessed till harvest (90 days). Significantly more termite infestation was found in control (75% PD and 40.33% PS) as compared to treated plots (p < 0.05). Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC was effectively reduced the termite infestation (17.96% PD and 13.98% PS). Sesamin 1000ppm was on par with standard check which controlled the pod damage and pod scarification by 18.33 and 15.00 per cent respectively. © MPH.
Chinniah C.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Pestology | Year: 2013
A field study on evaluation of certain new acaricide/insecticide molecules for their efficacy to suppress the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, on brinjal revealed that among the selected new molecules tested the following chemicals viz., Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 0.7 ml/lit, Abamectin 1.8 EC @ 0.5 ml/lit, Propargite 57 EC @ 3 ml/lit and Fenpyroximate 5 EC @ 0.8 ml/lit were found to be very effective in controlling the mite population (more than 75% reduction over untreated control) and they were statistically on par in terms of bioefficacy, fruit yield and cost benefit ratio. However the standard check Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 4 ml/lit was the best in reducing the mite population and in % yield increase.
Savitha P.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Usha Kumari R.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the important food crop and main source of nourishment for more than one half of the world population. Medicinal landraces like Navara is highly nutritive and are rich in minerals like potassium, sodium, calcium, micronutrients, viz. iron and zinc. The present investigation was carried out in the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during 2012–2014. High yielding released variety of Tamil Nadu used for standard check ADT 43 along with four different medicinal landraces of rice collected from different areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, viz. Navara, Kavuni, Veeradangan and Kathanellu were used. By improving the strain of these traditional medicinal rice varieties, scientists hope to make it stronger to withstand the onslaught of climate and ensure higher output. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
Sivasubramaniam K.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Selvarani K.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2012
(Viability and vigor of jamun (Syzygium cumini) seeds). Jamun (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels) (Black plum, Damson plum) fruits weigh between 2-5 g at maturity. Fresh seeds represented 20-80% of the total fruit weight; the seed coat and cotyledons contributed 6% and 94% to the total seed weight respectively, while the weight of the embryonic axis was insignificant. Only the embryonic axis stained with Tetrazolium, not the cotyledons. The seeds are polyembryonic with up to four embryos, of which at most three germinate. Decoated seeds germinated faster than coated seeds under nursery conditions, with high significant germination percentages, dry matter production rates and vigor indices. The lack of staining of the cotyledon by tetrazolium was probably due to the presence of an impermeable layer. Decoating seeds for faster germination is recommended.
Mahalakshmi P.,Agricultural College and Research Institute |
Raja I.Y.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2013
A study was carried out to test the antagonistic potential of four isolates of Trichoderma viride and eight isolates of T. harzianum and five isolates of T. reesei against F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, the cause of Fusarium wilt in carnation. T. harzianum (Th2) showed the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. (45.33%) over control followed by T. harzianum (Th6) and T. viride (Tv3) with 42.11 and 38.66 per cent inhibition respectively. The Competitive Saprophytic Ability (CSA) and colonization by each isolates of Trichoderma spp. was assessed. Among the 17 isolates, Th2 registered 61.84 per cent colonization followed by Th6 with 59.12 per cent colonization. All other isolates of Trichoderma spp. were inferior to Th2 in its saprophytic ability. The antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. were also tested for production of antifungal volatiles and their effect on the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. All the isolates were found to produce volatile metabolites, which inhibited the mycelial growth of test pathogen at varing levels from 16.33 to 50.11 per cent. © JBiopest 365.
Arunachalam R.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Legume Research | Year: 2011
A study was conducted in green gram and black gram in the selected blocks of Madurai district with the main objectives to study the extent of adoption of recommended pulse production technologies (Rice fallow and Pure crop) and also to study the constraints in the adoption of the recommended technologies. The pure crop respondents (Black gram) have fairly adopted the technologies viz., right time of sowing, optimum seed rate, recommended fertilizer, regular weeding, control of pod borer and powdery mildew and harvesting at the right time. In the practices viz., seed treatment, DAP spray at flowering, trimming and plastering of field bunds, control of sucking pests and storing the harvested produce in the polythene lined gunny bag they are not up to the expectation. At the same time, rice fallow respondents have poorly adopted almost all the recommended technologies. Almost similar trend prevailed in the green gram also The most felt were biological constraints and socio economic constraints, followed by technological and infrastructural constraints.