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Wang T.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wang T.-C.,Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Nai Y.-S.,National Taiwan University | Wang C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2013

A new microsporidium was isolated from the endemic, Taiwanese shrimp, Caridina formosae (Decapoda, Atyidae) from northern Taiwan. A conspicuous symptom of infection was presence of opaque white xenomas located in the proximity of the alimentary tract, the surface of the hepatopancreas, and the gills. A fully developed xenoma consisted of a hard, thick capsule filled with sporophorous vesicles containing multiple spores. Microsporidia developed synchronously within the same sporophorous vesicle, although the stage of parasite development differed among the vesicles. Fresh spores were pyriform, mononucleated and measured 6.53. ×. 4.38. μm. The polar filament was anisofilar with 9-11 coils. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence showed that the isolate is most similar to the fish microsporidian clade containing the genera Kabatana, Microgemma, Potaspora, Spraguea, and Teramicra. The highest sequence identity, 80%, was with Spraguea spp. Based on pathogenesis, life cycle and phylogenetic analysis, we erect a new genus and species, Triwangia caridinae for the novel microsporidium. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ko T.-H.,Tzu Hui Institute of Technology | Hsu Y.-C.,Tzu Hui Institute of Technology | Wang Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang Y.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

To investigate the potential for biofuel production by using cyanobacterium photosynthesis integrated with electrochemical treatment, several protein expressions and cellular components were experimentally analyzed. Thermosynechococcus sp. CL-1 (TCL-1) was chosen because it shows a significant photocurrent response at 0.4 V without the addition of artificial mediators in an H-type two-compartment electrolysis cell. The crude lipid content in the TCL-1 cells in either the anodic membrane or the suspended medium at 0.4 V was higher than that of the control experiments. In addition, the cells attached to the anodic membrane showed a considerably higher crude lipid content and lower carbohydrate content compared with the suspended cells. The experimental results show that electrochemical treatment redistributed the cellular components and proteomics of TCL-1 in the suspended medium and anodic membrane without increasing the total production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source


Shyu T.-H.,Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Shyu T.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Tea is a major source of fluoride intake in humans. Adequate fluoride intake is helpful in preventing dental caries, but excessive intake may lead to adverse effects. In order to evaluate the safety of tea drinking in Taiwan, the fluoride concentrations of 89 leaf tea samples and 42 bagged tea samples in their 1% infusions and 78 ready-to-drink tea beverage samples were determined by a fluoride ion selective electrode, which were 0.14-2.31 mg/L, 0.23-3.60 mg/L and 0.43-2.51 mg/L, respectively. Taiwanese leaf teas of different fermentation degree or from different plantation areas did not differ significantly in the fluoride levels in their infusions, but Taiwanese leaf teas in semi-ball shape had a significantly lower fluoride level than those in stick shape. Moreover, the bagged teas with tea leaves from Taiwan or Sri Lanka had a significantly lower fluoride level than those with tea leaves from unknown or mixed sources. Assuming five cups of tea (approximately 1000 ml) or two bottles of 600 ml tea beverages were consumed per day, the daily fluoride intake from 1% infusions of leaf teas, 1% infusions of bagged teas and ready-to-drink tea beverages were 0.14-2.31 mg, 0.23-3.60 mg and 0.38-3.01 mg, respectively. As the Adequate Intake (AI) for fluoride is set at 0.05 mg/day/kg body weight, drinking tea infusions or ready-to-drink beverages result in a high risk of exceeding fluoride intake recommendations for children less than 45 kg. Children of 8 years or less are particularly concerned as the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is set at 0.10 mg/kg/day specifically for this age group. It is suggested that the determination of fluoride concentrations and the enactment of daily safety precautions are indicated for all types of tea products to prevent the intake of excessive fluoride. Source


Cheng C.-F.,National Chung Hsing University | Hung S.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang Y.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen M.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | And 7 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2012

Hemagglutinating proteins (HAPs) were purified from Poker-chip Venus (Meretrix lusoria) and Corbicula clam (Corbicula fluminea) using gel-filtration chromatography on a Sephacryl S-300 column. The molecular weights of the HAPs obtained from Poker-chip Venus and Corbicula clam were 358 kDa and 380 kDa, respectively. Purified HAP from Poker-chip Venus yielded two subunits with molecular weights of 26 kDa and 29 kDa. However, only one HAP subunit was purified from Corbicula clam, and its molecular weight was 32 kDa. The two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed hemagglutinating ability (HAA) for erythrocytes of some vertebrate animal species, especially tilapia. Moreover, HAA of the HAP purified from Poker-chip Venus was higher than that of the HAP of Corbicula clam. Furthermore, Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA at a pH higher than 7.0. When the temperature was at 4°C10°C or the salinity was less than 0.5‰, the two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA compared with that of Corbicula clam. © 2012 Chin-Fu Cheng et al. Source


Chung Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Hsieh F.-C.,Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Lin Y.-J.,China Medical University at Taichung | Wu T.-Y.,Chung Yuan Christian University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-EV71 activity produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts. A pGS-EV71 IRES-based bicistronic reporter assay platform was used for rapid analysis of compounds that could specifically inhibit EV71 viral IRES-mediated translation. The analysis identified 2 caffeic acid derivatives, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and rosmarinic acid (RA), which suppressed EV71 IRES-mediated translation at concentrations of 30 μg/ml. We also found that MLB and RA inhibited EV71 infection when they were added to RD cells during the viral absorption stage. MLB had a low IC50 value of 0.09 mM and a high TI value of 10.52. In contrast, RA had an IC50 value of 0.50 mM with a TI value of 2.97. MLB and RA (100 μg/ml) also reduced EV71 viral particle production and significantly decreased VP1 protein production. We propose that these two derivatives inhibit EV71 viral entry into cells and viral IRES activity, thereby reducing viral particle production and viral RNA expression and blocking viral VP1 protein translation. This study provides useful information for the development of anti-EV71 assays and reagents by demonstrating a convenient EV71 IRES-based bicistronic assay platform to screen for anti-EV71 IRES activity, and also reports 2 compounds, MLB and RA, which are responsible for the anti-EV71 activity of S. miltiorrhiza. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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