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Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi V.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Khaksar R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Haratian P.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

A simple and efficient method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction and quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish. Benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and pyrene were employed as model compounds and spiked to smoked fish to assess the extraction procedure. Several parameters, including the nature and volume of hydrolysis, extracting and disperser solvents, microwave time and pH, were optimized. In the optimum condition for MAE, 1g of fish sample was extracted in 12mL KOH (2M) and ethanol with a 50:50 ratio in a closed-vessel system. For DLLME, 500μL of acetone (disperser solvent) containing 100μL of ethylene tetrachloride (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected by syringe into 12mL of the sample extract solution (previously adjusted to pH 6.5), thereby forming a cloudy solution. Phase separation was performed by centrifugation and a volume of 1.5μL of the sedimented phase was analyzed by GC-MS in select ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Satisfactory results were achieved when this method was applied to analyze the PAHs in smoked fish samples. The MAE-DLLME method coupled with GC-MS provided excellent enrichment factors (in the range of 244-373 for 16 PAHs) and good repeatability (with a relative standard deviation between 2.8 and 9%) for spiked smoked fish. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1-200ngg -1, with the square of the correlation coefficient (R 2)>0.981 and detection limits between 0.11 and 0.43ngg -1. The recoveries of those compounds in smoked fish were from 82.1% to 105.5%. A comparison of this method with previous methods demonstrated that the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample-pretreatment method that gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for extracting and determining PAHs from smoked fish. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Chaichi M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2013

A simple and accurate method for determination of furanic compounds in coffee samples using headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and validated. In addition to furan, other furanic compounds such as 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-vinyl furan, 2-(methoxymethyl) furan and furfural were also determined. The effective parameters in HS-LPME process, including ionic strength, stirring rate, temperature and time of extraction process were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design. The results of optimization study showed that stirring rate, temperature and time of extraction parameters have positive effect on the efficiency of microextraction process but the effect of salt addition on response was negative. The optimal extraction conditions using a quadratic model were: stirring rate 700rpm, extraction temperature 43°C, extraction time 15min and without salt addition. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.99) for all the furanic compounds in the range of 0.2-400ngml-1. Repeatability varied from 4.2% to 9.5%. The method accuracy was acceptable with recoveries ranging from 79.6% to 102%. Good enrichment factors were obtained e.g. 1270 for furan. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 to 10ngg-1 and 0.06 to 39ngg-1, respectively. The comparison of validated method with two other methods for furan analysis showed comparable merit figures and proved the applicability of HS-LPME followed by GC/MS for extraction and determination of furanic compounds in coffee samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Shirazi M.M.A.,Islamic Azad University at Omidieh | Kargari A.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Tabatabaei M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2014

In this study, nine flat-sheet commercially available hydrophobic PTFE membranes were used in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation and their characteristics were investigated under different operating conditions including feed temperature, feed flow rate, cold stream flow rate, and feed concentration. Membrane properties, i.e. pore size, thickness, support layer, and salt rejection were also studied. Moreover, membrane module designs including flow arrangements (co-current, counter-current and tangential) for process liquid and depth both on hot and cold sides were tested experimentally. Finally, the long-term performance of the selected membranes for direct contact membrane distillation as a stand-alone desalination process was investigated. The results indicated that increasing feed temperature, hot feed flow rate, and module depth on the cold side led to increase permeate flux. On the other hand, increasing membrane thickness and module depth on the hot side (at constant flow rate) had negative effects on the flux. The highest permeation flux and salt rejection was achieved when the membranes with a pore size of 0.22. μm were used in the cross-current follow arrangement of hot and cold streams. In addition, the requirements for support layer for a successful DCMD process has been extensively discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mohammadi A.,Shahid Beheshti University | Hashemi M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Hosseini S.M.,Shahid Beheshti University
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2015

This study was undertaken to investigate the nanoencapsulation of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) in chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) in order to enhance antifungal activity and stability of the oils against one isolate of Botrytis cinerea Pers., the causal agent of gray mould disease. ZEO was encapsulated by an ionic gelation technique into CSNPs with an average size of 125-175 nm as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From UV-vis spectrophotometry results, the drug encapsulation and loading efficiency of ZEO decreased from 45.24% to 3.26% and from 9.05% to 5.22%, respectively, upon increasing initial ZEO content from 0.25 to 1 g/g chitosan. In vitro release studies also demonstrated a controlled and sustained release of ZEO for 40 days. The superior performance of ZEO when encapsulated by CSNPs under both in vitro and in vivo conditions in comparison with unmodified ZEO against B. cinerea was revealed. The in vivo experiment also showed that the encapsulated oils at 1500 ppm concentration significantly decreased both disease severity and incidence of Botrytis-inoculated strawberries during 7 days of storage at 4 °C followed by 2-3 more days at 20 °C. These findings revealed the promising role of CSNPs as a controlled release system for EOs in order to enhance antifungal activities. Industrial relevance: Application of plant essential oil (EOs) treatment at pre- or postharvest stage has been considered as an alternative treatment to the use of synthetic fungicides to prevent fruit postharvest decay and to extend the storage life while retaining the overall quality of different fresh commodities. Although EOs have proved to be good antimicrobial agents, their use for maintaining fruit quality and reducing fungal decay is often limited due to their volatile compounds which can easily suffer degradation under the action of heat, pressure, light and oxygen. Furthermore, they are insoluble in water, and for certain applications a controlled release is required. In this regard, nano-size carriers provide more surface area and can possibly upgrade solubility, enhance bioavailability and improve controlled release and targeting of the encapsulated food ingredients, in comparison to micro-size carriers. These findings revealed the promising role of CSNPs as a controlled release system for EOs in order to enhance their antimicrobial activities. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abedelahi A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Salehnia M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Allameh A.A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Davoodi D.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Human Reproduction | Year: 2010

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium selenite (SS) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxide (GPx) activity of cultured pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified and non-vitrified ovarian tissue.Method SImmature mouse ovaries were vitrified, and mechanically isolated pre-antral follicles from vitrified and non-vitrified samples were cultured in TCM 199 medium supplemented with different concentrations (0, 5 and 10 ng/ml) of SS. Follicular, oocyte and embryo development was assessed. In parallel, ROS, TAC and GPx levels were analyzed after 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of culture.Result SDevelopment rates of follicles, oocytes and embryos were significantly higher in SS-supplemented groups (P < 0.005). ROS production was increased, and TAC levels and GPx activities were decreased after 24 h of culture of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified groups, whereas in the presence of SS, ROS production was decreased and TAC levels and selenium-dependent GPx-specific activities were increased after 96 h of culture. Vitrified and non-vitrified samples responded in a similar manner.Conclusion SS caused an increase in follicular TAC level and GPx activity and a decrease in ROS level, thus improving the in vitro development of follicles.

Shahryari F.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences | Year: 2010

The witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia is the most devastating disease of acidian lime in southern part of Iran as it destroy thousands of trees yearly throughout these regions. Traditional methods such as eradication of infected trees and insect vector control have shown limited effect on this case. Therefore, alternative approaches such as plantibody-mediated resistance, have been considered. Throughout present study we prepared sufficient amount of antigen that is required for generation of specific monoclonal recombinant antibodies against Immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) which will be exploited for plantibody-mediated resistance approach. The gene encoding IMP protein was obtained by PCR amplification using specific primers and DNA extracted from the infected plants. Amplified fragment was then inserted into T/A cloning vector. Intact clones containing the right sequence was selected after digestion, PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing analysis. IMP encoding region having the right sequence was sub-cloned into pET28a bacterial expression vector. Large scale expression of His tagged recombinant protein was performed in the BL21-de3 strain of E. coli and purification under native conditions was carried out through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) in a column containing Ni-NTA agarose beads. Successful expression and purification steps were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses. The results obtained indicated the successful production of about 18 mg purified recombinant IMP protein with a low level of contamination in one liter cultured medium. Finally the purified protein was dialyzed in phosphate saline buffer and applied for immunization of mice.

Hasheminejad M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Tabatabaei M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Mansourpanah Y.,Lorestan University | far M.K.,Iran Renewable Energy Organization SUNA | Javani A.,Islamic Azad University at North Tehran
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In recent years biodiesel has drawn considerable amount of attention as a clean and renewable fuel. Biodiesel is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fat mainly through catalytic or non-catalytic transesterification method as well as supercritical method. However, as a consequence of disadvantages of these methods, the production cost increases dramatically. This article summarizes different biodiesel production methods with a focus on their advantages and disadvantages. The downstream and upstream strategies such as using waste cooking oils, application of non-edible plant oils, plant genetic engineering, using membrane separation technology for biodiesel production, separation and purification, application of crude glycerin as an energy supplement for ruminants, glycerin ultra-purification and their consequent roles in economizing the production process are fully discussed in this article. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Noruzi M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Zare D.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Davoodi D.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

In the present study, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was reported using the aqueous extract of cypress leaves. The reduction of gold salt with the extract of cypress leaves resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. Effects of extract concentration and extract pH were investigated on the size of the nanoparticles. It was found that the average particle size of synthesized gold nanoparticles depends strongly on extract concentration and extract pH. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that bioorganic capping molecules were bound to the surface of particles. X-ray techniques confirmed the formation of gold nanoparticles and their crystalline structure. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis displayed that the reaction progress is higher than 90% at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape along with some irregular shapes. Cypress is an evergreen plant and its leaves are easily available in all four seasons. Also, the rate of the reaction was high and it was completed in only 10 min. For these reasons, this method is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Thus, it can be used in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles instead of chemical methods and other biosynthesis approaches. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Noruzi M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibres, such as high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety, make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibres have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone-loaded nanofibres, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, pre-concentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems such as the intensive use of pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

Tabatabaei M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Tohidfar M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Jouzani G.S.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Safarnejad M.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Pazouki M.,Iranian Materials and Energy Research Center
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Current biomass sources for energy production in Iran include sewerage as well as agricultural, animal, food industry and municipal solid wastes, and are anticipated to account for about 14% of national energy consumption in near future. However, due to the considerable progress made in genetic engineering of various plants in Iran during the last decade and the great potentials of microalgae for biofuel production, these photosynthetic organisms could be nominated as the future source of bioenergy in Iran. An overview of status of bioenergy in the world and Iran as well as the potential and utilization of biomass in Iran is presented. The possibilities of increasing biofuel production through microalgal genetic engineering and the progress made so far are discussed. Biodiesel in the Iran and its future prospective is also reviewed, emphasizing the promising role of microalgae. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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