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Vatchev T.D.,Agricultural Academy | Bistrichanov S.M.,University of Forestry | Yanashkov I.T.,Agricultural Academy
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

In September 2013 and July 2014, severe wilt symptoms were observed on mature, sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants (c. Sofijska kapiya) grown in a rockwool hydroponic system in a large-scale commercial greenhouse near Petrich, South West of Bulgaria. Examination of the wilted plants revealed progressive chlorosis of the lower leaves, severe brown and soft root rot and basal stem rot. Less affected plants showed yellow discoloration of the root system, stunted growth and lack of vigor. Approximately 25% of the pepper plants collapsed and died particularly during the fruiting period in the first year of observations and more than 30% of plants died in the second year. Isolations were made from sections of roots and basal stems of pepper plants with symptoms of disease on standard, nonselective media such as oatmeal (OA), potato dextrose (PDA) or water (WA) agar media. Plates were incubated at 25°C in the dark for 7 days. Pythium spp. isolates were readily obtained from all pepper plants with disease symptoms as well as from symptomless plant roots. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Ivanov M.,Agricultural Academy | Roychev V.,Agricultural University of Plovdiv
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Research has been carried out into the characteristics of the inheritance of the trait berry colouring in vine seedlings from F1 progeny of complex interspecies hybrid combinations. It has been found that the cultivars used in the separate crosses are characterized by different genotypes in terms of the studied trait, which leads to the observed great phenotypic diversity. The inheritance of berry colour takes place by monohybrid - dominant and incompletely dominant and dihybrid - epistatic scheme. The genetic analysis and determination of the individual genotype of parent cultivars related to that qualitative trait, present a theoretical possibility for increasing the efficiency of the selection process in vine in accordance with the concrete objective. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Daskalova N.,Varna Technical University | Doneva S.,Agricultural Academy | Spetsov P.,University of Shumen
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

This study is an attempt to produce hybrid plants from cross-combinations involving different Triticum species and hybrid forms under stressed conditions in polycarbonate greenhouse (temperature below 0°C in winter and high temperatures during pollination, fertilization and grain ripening). Materials included seven cross-combinations with participation of T. monococcum (three accessions), T. sinskajae (two), T. dicoccum (two) and three hybrid forms in which pedigree T. boeoticum was involved. From the 174 hybrid seeds obtained (averaged seed set of 42.2%), 86 (49.4%) germinated and 45 (25.9%) plants matured. Three crosses with different females and T. sinskajae acc.18397 and 18401 as males produced largest number of hybrids. All F1 plants were fully sterile except the cross T. monococcum acc.45126 x T. sinskajae acc.18401. Two other crosses (T. dicoccum acc.45398 x TS18397 and 198-2F3 x TS18397) yielded 17 seeds from plants treated with colchicine solution. Plants from the former cross were damaged by frost in December-January in tillering stage while those from the latter cross survived being younger, in 2–3 leaf phase. Two families were designated as amphiploids No.45-2 and 45-4 in C1 generation, one of which born more seeds than the parental forms. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Stanev S.,Agricultural Academy | Zagorcheva T.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Atanassov I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Bulgaria has a near century long tradition in lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) cultivation and essential oil production.Following significant reduction of lavender plantations during the country’s transition period at the end of the last century, the industrial lavender cultivation gained considerable attention and rapid expansion during the last decade.Here we present the main trends of the 21st century developments of the industrial lavender cultivation in Bulgaria.The data of parallel growing and essential oil production of the currently cultivated Bulgarian lavender varieties demonstrate the higher impact of cultivating vegetative propagated varieties instead of seed derived lavender populations.The main directions and challenges of the 21st century lavender growing in the country related to increased lavender cultivation are pointed out.The recent advances in development of lavender genomic resources, molecular markers, comparative analysis of flower volatiles and related opportunities for targeted breeding and marker assisted selection are discussed. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences.All rights reserved.


Borisova A.,Agricultural Academy | Kamenova I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Apple, pear and plum trees showing symptoms typical for apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellow from Kyustendil region of Bulgaria were analyzed for phytoplasma infection by polymerase chain reaction technology. PCR was performed by the use of specific for Apple proliferation group set (Loewe Phytodiagnostica, Germany) and the protocol recommended by the manufacturers. The results obtained showed the presence of phytoplasmas in 85.0% and 62.0% tested apple and pear trees, respectively and in all tested plum trees. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that apple and pear were infected with apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas, respectively, while European stone fruit yellows was detected in plum trees. Because many trees showed symptoms like those of sampled and analyzed trees, this preliminary assay suggest a high incidence of phytoplasmas from AP group in the surveyed region of the country. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Karadjova O.,Agricultural Academy | Krusteva H.,Agricultural Academy
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

The aim of the present investigation was to identify the hemipteran pests of suborder Sternorrhyncha (family Aphididae) and suborders Cicadomorpha, and Fulgoromorpha, on winter triticale Vihren variety and examine the population dynamics of the dominant species during the spring/summer vegetation period in relation to the sowing date and the climatic conditions.The study was carried out during the period 2011–2013 on the experimental fields on four plots of 0.25 ha.Two plots were sown with triticale in September (early sowing) and October (late sowing) each year.A total of 3 species of family Aphididae, 10 species of Cicadomorpha and 1 species of Fulgoromorpha were found in the crop.Sitobion avenae, Philaenus spumarius, Psammotettix provincialis, P.striatus and P.alienus were the most abundant.The abundance of Sitobion avenae was statistically higher in the crop sown in September and can be forecasted using the percentage of attacked stems.The variations in the abundance of Cicadomorpha and Flugoromorpha during the spring vegetation period were more dependent on the climatic conditions than on the sowing date. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences.All rights reserved.


Five new species, Petrobius caucasicus sp. n., Trigoniophthalmus presimplex sp. n., T. divnogorski sp. n., T. kislovodski sp. n., and T. adigei sp. n. (Machilidae), are described from the Caucasus. A key to all the known species of the genus Trigoniophthalmus is given. Two subgenera (Trigoniophthalmus s. str., Trigoniocellus subgen. n.) in the genus Trigoniophthalmus are described. 2 + 2 retractile vesicles are present on abdominal segments II-IV in the species of Trigoniocellus subgen. n. and on II-V abdominal segments in Trigoniophthalmus s. str. Analysis of the evolution and phylogenetic relations between the species of the genus Trigoniophthalmus is performed for the first time. The formation of bristletails of the genus Trigoniophthalmus appears to occur in the Caucasian mountain province of the European area, from where they penetrated to the Central European mixed province and the Mediterranean subarea. Among the described species of the genus, T. kislovodski is distinguished by the greatest number of plesiomorphic states of morphological characters. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Five new species, Petrobius caucasicus sp. n., Trigoniophthalmus presimplex sp. n., T. divnogorski sp. n., T. kislovodski sp. n., and T. adigei sp. n. (Machilidae), are described from the Caucasus. A key to the identification of all known species of the genus Trigoniophthalmus is given. Two subgenera (Trigoniophthalmus s. str., Trigoniocellus subgen. n.) in the genus Trigoniophthalmus are described. 2 + 2 eversible vesicles are located on II-IV abdominal segments in the species of Trigoniocellus subgen. n. and on II-V abdominal segments in Trigoniophthalmus s. str. The analysis of evolution and phylogenetic relations between species of the genus Trigoniophthalmus is given for the first time. The formation of bristletails of the genus Trigoniophthalmus appears to occur in the Caucasian mountain province of the European area, from where they penetrated to the Central European mixed province and the Mediterranean subarea. Among the described species of the genus, T. kislovodski is distinguished by the greatest number of plesiomorphous states of morphological features.


Bozhinova R.,Agricultural Academy
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

The effects of the different phosphorus rates (0; 75 and 225 kg ha-1) on tobacco yield and concentration of macro- and micronutrients in leaves have been studied in a stationary field trial. A long-term fertilizer experiment with continuous tobacco cropping system was established on rendzina soil (Rendzic Leptosol) in 1966. Phosphorus was identified as a factor limiting cured leaf yield in continuous tobacco cropping system, established on a soil with low available P. With the increase of phosphorus fertilization rate the content of the phosphorus and calcium in leaves also increased. Zinc concentration was significantly greater in the lower and middle leaves that received no supplemental P fertilizer compared with those plots that did. Copper content of the leaves decreased with increase of phosphorus fertilizing level from 0 to 75 kg ha-1. Fertilization whit 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 should be considered as optimal for producing high yield of sun-cured leaves. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Szostak B.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Witkowski P.,Zaklad Przetworstwa Miesnego Witkowski Sp. z o.o. Tomaszow Lubelski | Apostolov A.,Agricultural Academy
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

The material for analysis consisted of pig carcasses weighing 80–90 kg from three farms located in the south-eastern part of the Lublin Voivodeship (from the villages of Lipowiec, Dęby and Gorajec). Commercial crossbreeding of pigs on these farms is based on the use of Polish Large White x Polish Landrace sows and Duroc x Piètrain boars. The analysis covered the years 2012–2014. The lean meat content of the carcasses obtained from each of the producers was characterized on the basis of on arithmetic mean (x) for each farm and year of production. The percentage distribution of the carcasses in each of the classes S, E, U, R, O, and P was analysed as well. The lean mean content of the carcasses evaluated can be considered good. On each of the farms analysed carcasses in classes E and S were predominant. However, the decline in average meatiness on the farms in Lipowiec and Gorajec in the last year of the analysis (2014) with respect to the previous years is worrisome. A thorough analysis should be conducted on these farms to determine the cause of the reduction in meat content. The differences in the meat content of the carcasses from the farms analysed are the result of different environmental factors on these farms, mainly diet and housing conditions. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

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