Yabuta Y.,Agricultural |
Hashimoto E.,Agricultural |
Takeuchi T.,Tottori University |
Sakaki S.,MicroAlgae Corporation |
And 3 more authors.
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2014
Cyanobacteria contain substances of high biological value and are used to meet the high demands of the global food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we prepared a hot water extract of the edible cyanobacterium, Nostochopsis, and evaluated its possible use as an ingredient in cosmetics. Specifically, a hot water extract of Nostochopsis was assayed for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase, a key enzyme in skin melanin synthesis, was strongly inhibited by the Nostochopsis hot water extract, which reduced a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin synthesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Thus, Nostochopsis hot water extract may be suitable as an ingredient in cosmetics. Copyright © 2014, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.
Nikkami D.,Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute SCWMRI |
Chamheidar H.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Mahdian M.H.,Agricultural |
Pazira E.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
ASABE - 21st Century Watershed Technology Conference and Workshop 2012: Improving Water Quality and the Environment | Year: 2012
The optimal allocation of the limited land resources in a watershed scale is one of the most important factors of reducing the volume of soil erosion. Applying optimization techniques can empower the decision-maker or watershed manager to maintain a reasonable balance between environmental flows and demands. The main objective of this research is to study the optimized combination of land allocation to different land uses like forestland, rangeland, orchard, irrigated farming and dry farming for minimized soil erosion in Abolabbas watershed located in Khuzestan province, Iran. For this purpose an optimization problem based on linear programming solution has been formulated in three different land use scenarios including existing land uses, existing land uses and some land management and finally optimum land uses with proper land management. Using simplex method within the LINGO software, the optimal solution was determined. The results demonstrated that the amount of soil erosion could, respectively reduce to the tune of 1.70, 69.77 and 75.85%, in three scenarios, in case of implementing optimal allocation of land resources in different land uses. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that the area of orchard and irrigated lands are the most sensitive parameters in the constraints of soil erosion minimization problem.
Dioguardi L.,University of Milan |
Food Control | Year: 2010
The present study investigated several small dairies, located in mountain areas of Northern Italy, with the aim to identify critical factors that are frequently neglected despite their potentially decisive role in improving hygiene standards of dairy processing and work safety. The results highlighted the structural and procedural aspects involved in sanitary requirements of traditional dairy production. Our analysis has made it clear that processing environment is often inadequately protected from external contamination, and design and realisation of buildings is not suitable for food processing requirements. For example, the main critical points for food safety in relation to building structure are indoor layout of a dairy, and coating materials for floors and walls that, although smooth and washable, do not withstand chemical attack, environmental conditions, and mechanical stress. From a procedural point of view, cleaning operations are not carried out thoroughly, and working practices are hygienically deficient. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Windon S.R.,University Extension |
Jepsen S.D.,Agricultural |
Scheer S.D.,Ohio State University
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health | Year: 2016
Quality of life is a broad concept that presents a challenge to measure as a scientific category. Quality of life encompasses a broad range of variables based on an individual's expression of life satisfaction, perceptions, values, feelings of subjective wellbeing, and happiness. This study identified and examined factors that influenced the quality of life of Ohio farmers with disabilities who were enrolled in the Ohio AgrAbility Program (OAP) (n = 55) and participated in this study (60% response rate). A 34-item questionnaire was created. The sample of OAP farmers reported stress many days a week, had a negative outlook on life, and were less satisfied with their overall quality of life because of their health. The OAP participants reported external factors, such as cost of equipment, financial pressures, and input costs, as having a negative effect on their quality of life. The participants also reported that they were not satisfied with the amount of vacation time (60.6%), managing farm work and family life (54.6%), overall health (55%), and quality of life (27%). The results showed a significant difference between the OAP participants' overall quality of life and the following variables: gender, net cash income, outlook on life, health, stress, farm work, managing farm and family, social activities, and emotional support for farmers with disabilities. The findings of this exploratory study allowed farmers to identify factors that they perceived as important to their quality of life. Moreover, the results may be helpful for stakeholders to better understand the needs of farmers with disabilities and provide appropriate educational and other services to enhance their quality of life. © 2016 ASABE.
Saidi P.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Sadeghi M.,Agricultural |
Shirazi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Tenreiro C.,Sungkyunkwan University
Medical Physics | Year: 2010
Purpose: For the treatment of some cancerous tumors using brachytherapy methods and low-energy photon sources, such as 125I and 103Pd, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43U1 report recommends that the dosimetric parameters of a new brachytherapy source must be determined in two experimental and Monte Carlo theoretical methods before using each new source clinically. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations of the dosimetric parameters for IR08- P 103 d brachytherapy source design. IR08- P 103 d seed has been manufactured at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School. Methods: Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. Three geometric models of the seed, based on different locations of beads inside the titanium capsule, were simulated. The seed contains five resin beads of 0.6 mm diameter having P 103 d uniformly absorbed in the bead volume, which were contained within a cylindrical titanium capsule having 0.8 mm outside diameter and 4.8 mm length. Results: The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IR08- P 103 d seed was found to be 0.695±0.021 cGyU-1 h-1. Also in this study, the geometry function G (r,θ), line and point-source radial dose functions gL (r) and gP (r), and the anisotropy function F (r,θ), have been calculated at distances from 0.25 to 7 cm. The results of these calculations have been compared with measured values for an actual IR08- P 103 d seed. Conclusions: There are no statistical significant dosimetric differences among the three seed orientations in this study (i.e., ideal, vertical, and diagonal). However, the observed differences between the calculated and measured values could be explained by the measurement uncertainty and the configuration of the resin beads within the capsule and capsule orientation. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Sadeghi M.,Agricultural |
Taghdiri F.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Hamed Hosseini S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Tenreiro C.,Sungkyunkwan University
Medical Physics | Year: 2010
Purpose: The formalism recommended by Task Group 60 (TG-60) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is applicable for Β sources. Radioactive biocompatible and biodegradable S 153 m glass seed without encapsulation is a Β- emitter radionuclide with a short half-life and delivers a high dose rate to the tumor in the millimeter range. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations of the dosimetric parameters for the 153Sm brachytherapy source. Methods: Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate two-dimensional dose distributions around the source. The dosimetric parameters of AAPM TG-60 recommendations including the reference dose rate, the radial dose function, the anisotropy function, and the one-dimensional anisotropy function were obtained. Results: The dose rate value at the reference point was estimated to be 9.21±0.6 cGy h-1 μ Ci-1. Due to the low energy beta emitted from 153Sm sources, the dose fall-off profile is sharper than the other beta emitter sources. The calculated dosimetric parameters in this study are compared to several beta and photon emitting seeds. Conclusions: The results show the advantage of the 153Sm source in comparison with the other sources because of the rapid dose fall-off of beta ray and high dose rate at the short distances of the seed. The results would be helpful in the development of the radioactive implants using S 153 m seeds for the brachytherapy treatment. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Nikooei M.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Fathipour Y.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Javaran M.J.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2016
The performance of Diadegma semiclausum (Hellen) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) reared on canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003 and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using the age-stage, two-sex life table parameters. All experiments were carried out in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16: 8 (L: D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of D. semiclausum on its host larvae reared on different plant genotypes. The shortest (12.27 days) and longest (15.21 days) pre-adult developmental times were observed on cultivar-RGS003 and hybrid-Hyula401, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) in D. semiclausum ranged between 0.189/day (cultivar-Opera) and 0.141/day (transgenic-PF). Moreover, the highest (20.078 offspring) and lowest (12.027 offspring) net reproductive rates (R0) were observed on cultivar-Opera and hybrid-Hyula401. The mean generation time (T) of D. semiclausum was the highest (18.34 days) and lowest (15.05 days) on mutant-RGS003 and cultivar-RGS003. The maximum and minimum parasitism values of this parasitoid were observed on canola's progenitor (44.28%) and hybrid-Hyula401 (37.09%). The heaviest pupae (3.82 mg) and females (3.22 mg) of the parasitoid were found on canola's progenitor and cultivar-Opera, respectively. The results showed that performance of this parasitoid was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants known to have higher levels of glucosinolates concentration than others. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PubMed | University of Hong Kong and Agricultural
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016
The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using soybean meal added with papain to replace half of the fishmeal used in the moist pellets (49% fishmeal and 45% trash fish) developed by the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) for culturing marine fish. Gold-lined seabream (Rhabdosargus sarba), brown spotted grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri) and pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were farmed at one of the research stations (Kat-O) of AFCD, for a period of 340 days. Results indicated that diets containing papain resulted in better fish growth (reflected by relative weight gain and feed conversion ratio) than diets without papain. In general, wet weight gain of fish depends on the amount of papain added in diet rather than the diet composition. Soybean used in conjunction with papain also contributed to a more effective growth than fish fed with the moist pellets alone. A laboratory experiment (using tanks) was conducted to study the effects of the diets on concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the tank water. Results showed that concentrations of ammonia and nitrate were significantly lower (p<0.05) when the fish were fed with papain-supplemented (with or without soybean meal) diets. It is envisaged that by using plant protein incorporated with enzymes could promote better growth of marine fish and lower the adverse impact of trash fish and fishmeal on water quality of the mariculture zones.
PubMed | University of Calgary, University of Alberta, Doctors Data Inc., Tufts University and Agricultural
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016
Vitamin D is critical for healthy pregnancies and normal fetal development. It is important to accurately ascertain vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns to establish the optimal vitamin D concentration during pregnancy. There are many different metabolites and epimers of vitamin D in peripheral blood and controversy as to the importance of epimers in estimating vitamin D status in maternal and infant health.We undertook this study to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites and epimers and their relations in maternal and cord blood and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion of epimers on assessing vitamin D status.We performed a substudy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada [APrON (Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition) Study]. Maternal and cord blood plasma collected at the time of newborn delivery was stored at -70C until testing and assayed for 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], and 3-epi-25-hydroxycholecalciferol [3-epi-25(OH)D3] by using LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 on estimates of vitamin D adequacy was explored by using McNemars chi-square test at both recommended thresholds of 50 and 75 nmol/L.Ninety-two pairs of maternal and cord blood samples were obtained. 3-Epi-25(OH)D3 was detected in all samples, comprising 6.0% and 7.8% of 25(OH)D3 in maternal and cord blood, respectively. Positive correlations were found between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 for both maternal and cord blood (maternal blood: r = 0.34, P = 0.01; cord blood: r = 0.44, P = 0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed a significant association between vitamin D supplementation and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in maternal and cord blood (: 0.423; 95% CI: 0.173, 0.672). When 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was not included in plasma vitamin D estimations, 38% of women and 80% of neonates were classified as having an insufficient concentration (<75 nmol/L); however, with 3-epi-25(OH)D3 included, the estimates of insufficiency were significantly lower: 33% and 73% for women and neonates, respectively.Using LC-MS/MS we showed the presence of 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in all samples of pregnant women and their cord blood, and when the 3-epimer was included in the estimation of status the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/L) was significantly lower. Our data suggest that the high use of dietary supplements in this group of women contributes to 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in both maternal and cord blood. Further research on the role of the epimers in characterizing vitamin D status in pregnancy and infancy is imperative.
PubMed | Agricultural
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2010
The formalism recommended by Task Group 60 (TG-60) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is applicable for beta sources. Radioactive biocompatible and biodegradable 153Sm glass seed without encapsulation is a beta- emitter radionuclide with a short half-life and delivers a high dose rate to the tumor in the millimeter range. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations of the dosimetric parameters for the 153Sm brachytherapy source.Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate two-dimensional dose distributions around the source. The dosimetric parameters of AAPM TG-60 recommendations including the reference dose rate, the radial dose function, the anisotropy function, and the one-dimensional anisotropy function were obtained.The dose rate value at the reference point was estimated to be 9.21 +/- 0.6 cGy h(-1) microCi(-1). Due to the low energy beta emitted from 153Sm sources, the dose fall-off profile is sharper than the other beta emitter sources. The calculated dosimetric parameters in this study are compared to several beta and photon emitting seeds.The results show the advantage of the 153Sm source in comparison with the other sources because of the rapid dose fall-off of beta ray and high dose rate at the short distances of the seed. The results would be helpful in the development of the radioactive implants using 153Sm seeds for the brachytherapy treatment.