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News Article | August 10, 2017

On 9 August the AWRI and Vinehealth Australia released an email bulletin warning the grape industry of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus. The email stated detailed of the virus and offered growers a plan of steps to take. A copy of the email is s below, and and further details can be found in the AWRI fact sheet here. Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV) has been detected for the first time in Australia. This virus is common in many international wine regions in Europe, USA, Canada and China. GPGV can be spread via infected propagation material and possibly by bud and blister mite. The impact of GPGV on vine health is not well understood and is further complicated by the finding that GPGV is frequently found in mixed infections with other viruses. Measures have been taken to ensure that no spread will occur from the vines in which the virus has been detected in Australia. To determine the extent of GPGV in Australia, targeted surveillance for the virus by relevant state government biosecurity departments will take place this spring when symptoms are most evident. About GPGV GPGV is a member of the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. It is a recent scientific discovery and the origin of the virus is unknown. The discovery of GPGV in Australia has been enabled by improved diagnostic capability. GPGV has been reported in China, Croatia, Canada, Georgia, Germany, Italy, France, Korea, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Greece, USA and Turkey and has been confirmed in at least 28 wine and table grape varieties including Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Traminer, Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Carmenere. Grapevines infected with GPGV can either show symptoms, or are symptomless. The symptoms associated with infection include delayed budburst, leaf distortion and mottling, shortened internodes, increased berry acidity and yield loss (reports of up to 80%). These symptoms are most pronounced in spring and may be confused with early season bud mite damage, cold injury or herbicide damage. Action required Given the recent isolated detections of GPGV in Australia and pending further evidence that GPGV is present in other vineyards in Australia, GPGV is still categorised as an exotic plant pest. Therefore, it is important that: The two main laboratories for grapevine virus testing in Australia are: Crop Health Services AgriBio Specimen Reception Main Loading Dock, 5 Ring Road, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083 Phone: 03 9032 7323 Email: Waite Diagnostics University of Adelaide School of Agriculture, Food and Wine PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064 Phone: 08 8313 7426 Email:  More information More information about GPGV symptoms, sampling, diagnostics and actions following a positive test can be found in the GPGV fact sheet, accessible here. Further information on GPGV will be provided as new details are obtained, and on completion of the targeted surveillance program in spring 2017. If you have questions about Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus, please contact Australian Vignerons on 08 8133 4401. For maximum reach, this advice is being distributed simultaneously by Australian Vignerons, Vinehealth Australia and the Australian Wine Research Institute. This content originally appeared in an email newsletter care of the AWRI.

Kittipadakul P.,Kasetsart University | Jaipeng B.,Potato Grower | Slater A.,AgriBio | Stevenson W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2016

Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Major production constraints are quality seed, cultivars adapted to short season warm climates, and high disease incidence. There is a need for increased research for cultivar development, access to high quality seed and improved commercial potato production practices. © 2016 The Potato Association of America

Xiang R.,University of Melbourne | MacLeod I.M.,AgriBio | Bolormaa S.,AgriBio | Bolormaa S.,Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Goddard M.E.,University of Melbourne
Scientific Reports | Year: 2017

While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with multiple phenotype have been reported, the knowledge of pleiotropy of uncorrelated phenotype is minimal. Principal components (PCs) and uncorrelated Cholesky transformed traits (CT) were constructed using 25 raw traits (RTs) of 2841 dairy bulls. Multi-trait meta-analyses of single-trait genome-wide association studies for RT, PC and CT in bulls were validated in 6821 cows. Most PCs and CTs had substantial estimates of heritability, suggesting that genes affect phenotype via diverse pathways. Phenotypic orthogonalizations did not eliminate pleiotropy: the meta-analysis achieved an agreement of significant pleiotropic SNPs (p < 1 × 10-5, n = 368) between RTs (416), PCs (466) and CTs (425). From this overlap we identified 21 lead SNPs with 100% validation rate containing two clusters: one consisted of DGAT1 (chr14:1.8 M+), MGST1 (chr5:93 M+), PAEP (chr11:103 M+) and GPAT4 (chr27:36 M+) affecting protein, milk and fat yield and the other included CSN2 (chr6:87 M+), MUC1 (chr3:15.6 M), GHR (chr20:31.2 M+) and SDC2 (chr14:70 M+) affecting protein and milk yield. Combining beef cattle data identified correlated SNPs representing CAPN1 (chr29:44 M+) and CAST (chr 7:96 M+) loci affecting beef tenderness, showing pleiotropic effects in dairy cattle. Our findings show that SNPs with a large effect on one trait are likely to have small effects on other uncorrelated traits. © 2017 The Author(s).

Kinoti W.,AgriBio | Plummer K.,University of Vic | Constable F.,AgriBio | Nancarrow N.,AgriBio | Rodoni B.,AgriBio
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Ilarviruses infect Prunus species with significant economic impact on commercial Prunus industries in Australia. Important Ilarvirus species of Prunus species in Australia are Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and their diversity and incidence in Australia is not well understood. To understand their strain variation, 178 Prunus tree samples were tested using species-specific Ilarvirus RT-PCR tests targeting the coat protein gene of PNRSV, ApMV and PDV and genus-specific RT-PCR test that targets the RdRP gene of ilarviruses. Variation in the detection of ilarviruses between the speciesspecific and genus-specific RT-PCR tests indicated genetic variation of ilarviruses in the Prunus trees. Selected samples were inoculated on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) indicators and a variation in symptom expression and detection of ilarviruses using the species-specific and genus-specific RT-PCR tests was observed. The PCR products from the Prunus tree and cucumber indicators were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein and RdRP sequences showed clustering of cucumber Ilarvirus isolates away from the Prunus tree isolates suggesting that the cucumber indicators were selecting for specific sequence variants. Further sequence analysis indicated presence of genetic variation amongst Ilarvirus variants in Prunus tree and and the cucumber indicators were selecting for these sequence variants.

Cherot F.,Service Public de Wallonie | Malipatil M.B.,AgriBio | Malipatil M.B.,La Trobe University
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex of genera is reviewed. Diagnostic characters for each included genus and species are provided. Two new genera, Poppiomegacoelum n. gen. and Pseudomegacoelum n. gen., are proposed to accommodate Poppiomegacoelum gearyi n. sp.from Australia and four species from west Palearctic previously classified under Megacoelum Fieber, 1858 respectively. Three new species from Australia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands are described: Adelphocorisella rubricornis n. sp., Waucoris solomonensis n. sp. and Waucoris tricolor n. sp. The following new combinations are made: Adelphocorisella brunnescens (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris brunnescens Poppius, 1915], A. relatum (Distant, 1904) [for Megacoelum relatum Distant, 1904], Macrolygus rubrus (Carvalho, 1987) [for Waucoris rubrus Carvalho, 1987], Miyamotoa mussooriensis (Distant, 1909) [for Megacoelum mussooriense Distant, 1909], Orientomiris ater (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades ater Poppius, 1915], O. brunneus (Poppius, 1914) [for Creontiades brunneus Poppius, 1914], O. furhstorferi (Poppius, 1915) [for C. furhstorferi Poppius, 1915], O. maculicollis (Poppius, 1915) [for C. maculicollis Poppius, 1915], O. marginatus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. marginatus Poppius, 1915], O. montanus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. montanus Poppius, 1915], O. monticola (Poppius, 1914) [for Megacoelum monticola Poppius, 1914], O. orientalis (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades orientalis Poppius, 1915], O. pallidicornis (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum pallidicorne Poppius, 1915], O. ravana (Kirkaldy, 1909) [for Kangra ravana Kirkaldy, 1909], O. sumatranus (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris sumatranus Poppius, 1915], O. uzeli (Poppius, 1910) [for Creontiades uzeli Poppius, 1910), Poppiocapsidea tagalica (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum tagalicum Poppius, 1915], Pseudomegacoelum angustum (Wagner, 1965) [for Megacoelum angustum Wagner, 1965], P. beckeri (Fieber, 1870) [for M. beckeri (Fieber, 1870)], P. irbilanum (Linnavuori, 1988) [for M. irbilanum Linnavuori, 1988], P. quercicola (Linnavuori, 1965) [for M. quercicola Linnavuori, 1965], Waucoris poppiusi Chérot & Malipatil [new name and new combination for Megacoelum papuanum Poppius, 1915]. The following new synonymies are established: Creontiades vittipennis Reuter, 1905 (valid name) = Creontiades vitticollis Poppius, 1915 (new subjective synonym), Poppiocapsidea biseratensis (Distant, 1903) (valid name) = Megacoelum townsvillensis Distant, 1904 (new subjective synonym). Cheilocapsidea insignis (Distant, 1909) is recorded from Laos and the male genitalic structures are briefly described for the first time. A lectotype is designated for Capsus antennatus Kirby, 1891, Creontiades ater Poppius, 1915, Creontiades brunneus Poppius, 1914, Creontiades fruhstorferi Poppius, 1915, Creontiades marginatus Poppius, 1915, Creontiades uzeli Poppius, 1910, Megacoelum mussooriensis Distant, 1909, Megacoelum relatum Distant, 1904, and Megacoelum townsvillensis Distant, 1904 (original combinations). A key for the genera included in the Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex is given. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

Breen S.,Australian National University | Solomon P.S.,Australian National University | Bedon F.,AgriBio | Bedon F.,La Trobe University | Vincent D.,AgriBio
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesized through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbor unusual structural diversity. Plants synthesize an array of AMPs, yet are still subject to many pathogen invasions. Crop breeding programs struggle to release new cultivars in which complete disease resistance is achieved, and usually such resistance becomes quickly overcome by the targeted pathogens which have a shorter generation time. AMPs could offer a solution by exploring not only plant-derived AMPs, related or unrelated to the crop of interest, but also non-plant AMPs produced by bacteria, fungi, oomycetes or animals. This review highlights some promising candidates within the plant kingdom and elsewhere, and offers some perspectives on how to identify and validate their bioactivities. Technological advances, particularly in mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have been instrumental in identifying and elucidating the structure of novel AMPs, especially nonribosomal peptides which cannot be identified through genomics approaches. The majority of non-plant AMPs showing potential for plant disease immunity are often tested using in vitro assays. The greatest challenge remains the functional validation of candidate AMPs in plants through transgenic experiments, particularly introducing nonribosomal AMPs into crops. © 2015 Breen, Solomon, Bedon and Vincent.

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