Agri Northwest

Plymouth, WA, United States

Agri Northwest

Plymouth, WA, United States

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Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore M.,Agri Northwest | Pavek M.J.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2014

Sulfur and copper are important for human health. Sulfur deficiency is rare, but may occur in the elderly. However, a large percentage of the U.S. population is deficient in copper. The purpose of this study was to determine the range of values for sulfur and copper available in advanced potato germplasm and varieties and estimate how much genetic variation exists for these two elements. Potato breeding lines and varieties in three multisite trials were evaluated for copper and sulfur content by wet ashing and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer analysis. Stability and broad-sense heritability were determined. Among genotypes, copper content ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 ug-g−1 DW. This was a 2.25-fold difference. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype by environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.0, 0.93 and 0.51 for the Tri-State, Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. Among genotypes, sulfur content ranged from 991 to 1488 ug-g−1 DW. The highest value was 50 % higher than the lowest. In these three trials, environment was never significant, while genotype x environment interactions were always significant. Genotype was significant in two of the regional trials. Broad-sense heritabilities were estimated to be 0.53, 0.68 and 0.88, for Tri-State, Western Regional Russet, and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials, respectively. For both sulfur and copper, selection in the Western Regional Russet and Western Regional Red/Specialty trials is likely to lead to an increase in content. Selection for sulfur in the Tri-State would result in a gain as well. These results suggest that genetic improvements could be made to potato to enhance the concentrations of these minerals. © 2014, The Potato Association of America.


Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore M.,Agri Northwest | Pavek M.J.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2010

Iron deficiency in humans occurs in all regions of the world. Potatoes are a modest source of iron. The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variation for potato tuber iron content exists. Iron content in unpeeled potato was measured in 33 clones, including varieties and advanced breeding selections, in three trials (Tri-State, Western Regional Russet, Western Specialty/Red) which in total were grown in twelve environments. In two trials significant genotype × environment interaction occurred. Thirteen clones contributed significantly to this genotype × environment interaction, making them unstable across environments, including the variety Russet Burbank. Broad-sense heritabilities and their 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses) in the Tri-State, Western Regional Russet and Western Specialty/Red Trials were 0.00 (0.00, 0.38), 0.64 (0.17, 0.87), and 0.73 (0.25, 0.90), respectively. Overall the range of mean iron content on a clonal basis was 17 to 62 ug per gram dry weight. The upper limit is three times higher than generally reported values of potato. The five highest values were found in the Western Specialty/Red trial and were red-skinned, white-fleshed clones. These results suggest that genetic variation for tuber iron content exists and that breeding for enhanced iron content would be feasible. © 2010 Potato Association of America.


Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore M.,Agri Northwest | Pavek M.J.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2011

The mineral content of potato is an important consideration in the evaluation of its role in the human diet. Zinc content is vital due to its crucial role as a micronutrient. Zinc deficiency occurs among the poorest of the world's populations. In this study, 36 breeding lines and varieties (genotypes) were divided among three trials (Tri-State, Western Regional Russet and Western Specialty/Red) which were grown in 11 locations. Zinc content was measured in harvested tubers by wet ashing and passage through an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer Genotype mean zinc content ranged from 12 to 18 μg g-1 dry weight over all trials. In two of the three trials there were no significant differences among genotypes for zinc. Broad sense heritabilities for zinc content were small in these two trials. In the Western Regional Russet Trial there were significant differences among genotypes and the heritability was 0.61, suggesting that genotypes with higher zinc content could be selected. However, the largest zinc value was only 50% above the lowest value. Furthermore, a 100 g serving of the highest zinc genotype would only provide 4% of the adult Estimated Average Requirement From these results, potato from this breeding pool would not appear to be a good candidate for biofortification of zinc through traditional breeding. Higher values from other studies suggest that zinc biofortification through breeding may be warranted in potato for populations with high potato consumption and high risk for zinc deficiency in the Andes of South America. © 2011 Potato Association of America.


Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore M.,Agri Northwest | Pavek M.J.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2012

Calcium and magnesium are two minerals that play prominent roles in animal and plant metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variation exists among advanced potato breeding clones for tuber calcium and magnesium content and the extent of genotype x environment interactions on these two traits. Ten, 13, and 13 clones were evaluated in the Tri-State, Western Regional, and Western Regional Red/Specialty Trials, respectively. Tuber calcium content ranged from 266 to 944 μg-g -1 DW; magnesium from 787 to 1,089 μg-g -1 DW. Genotype x environment interactions were significant in all trials. However, only the Tri-State for calcium and the Western Regional Red/Specialty trials for both minerals displayed a significant source of variation for genotypes. Broad-sense heritabilities for tuber calcium content were 0.65, 0.37 and 0 in the Tri-State, Western Regional, and Western Regional Red/Specialty Trials, respectively. Broad-sense heritabilities for tuber magnesium content were 0.57, 0, and 0.72 in the Tri-State, Western Regional, and Western Regional Red/Specialty Trials, respectively. Potato is not a rich source of either calcium or magnesium for the human diet, but genetic variation exists among potato clones that might be useful for plant health. © 2012 Potato Association of America.


Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes K.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Moore M.,Agri Northwest | Pavek M.J.,Washington State University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2013

In the study of nutritional variability in potato it is desirable to know the present range of expression and genetic potential for increase. Potato breeding lines and varieties in two separate trials were evaluated for potassium and phosphorus content by wet ashing and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer analysis. Stability and broad-sense heritability were determined. Among genotypes, potassium content ranged from 1.85 and 2.49 % DW while phosphorus content ranged from 0.16 to 0.34 % DW over both trials. Genotype by environment interactions were significant in the Tri-State and Western Regional Red/Specialty (WR-R/SP) trials for both potassium and phosphorus, while environments were not. Genotype was a significant source of variation for both minerals in the WR-R/SP trial only. In the Tri-State trials, 7 and 4 of ten clones were unstable before and after removal of environmental heterogeneity, respectively, for potassium content, and 5 and 4 genotypes were unstable before and after removal of environmental heterogeneity, respectively, for phosphorus. In the WR-R/SP Trials, 7 and 3 of 13 clones were unstable before and after removal of environmental heterogeneity, respectively, for potassium content, and 3 and 4 genotypes were unstable before and after removal of environmental heterogeneity, respectively, for phosphorus. Broad sense heritability was low for both potassium and phosphorus in the Tri-State Russet-Skin Trials but high for both potassium and phosphorus in the WR-R/SP Trials. Although potato is a minor contributor of phosphorus to the human diet, it is an important source of potassium. Adult males and females receive 12 % of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of potassium from 100 g of potato. Estimates of broad-sense heritability from these two trials suggest that genotypes with higher levels of both potassium and phosphorus can be selected from within the Red/Specialty market class, but not from within the Tri-State russet class. An increase in potassium content in the potato, for which the daily need in the human body is so high, could be a boon to human health. © 2013 Potato Association of America.

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