Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont

Belfast, United Kingdom

Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont

Belfast, United Kingdom
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McMahon C.,Queen's University of Belfast | Edgar H.W.J.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Hanna R.E.B.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Ellison S.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 9 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2016

Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes.A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%).Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


McMahon C.,Queen's University of Belfast | Edgar H.W.J.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Barley J.P.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Hanna R.E.B.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports | Year: 2017

A questionnaire to obtain information on tapeworm control practices was sent to 252 sheep farmers in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2012. Replies were received from 228 flock owners. Most farmers considered that tapeworm infections had less impact on productivity than gastrointestinal nematodes, flukes and ectoparasites. The majority of respondents (61.8%) did not treat for tapeworms. Of those that did, the average number of treatments given per year was 2.3, with some owners treating up to 6 times a year. The highest percentages of treatments were given over the period May–July. Benzimidazole compounds were the predominant class of drugs used (48.2%), followed by macrocyclic lactones (MLs) (31.2%). Levamisole, oxyclozanide, closantel and Monepantel were also used; together with MLs, their combined use accounted for 51.9% of all treatments given, and represents inappropriate product choice. Diagnostic data for tapeworm infections in NI over the period 2007–2014 was retrieved from the database held by the Veterinary Sciences Division at Stormont. Positive diagnoses remained low throughout this period: the highest recorded figure was 3.1%, in 2007. Despite there being little-to-no justification for treating sheep for M. expansa on the basis of any likely benefit to the health or production of the animals, many farmers in NI do treat for tapeworm and often with ineffective products. This is of concern, in that it could lead to the inadvertent development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode and trematode parasites. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


McMahon C.,Queen's University of Belfast | Barley J.P.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Edgar H.W.J.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Ellison S.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole®, Panacur® and Allverm® (white drench), Levacide® (yellow drench), Oramec® (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin® (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel® (orange drench).Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents).The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively.Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


McMahon C.,Queen's University of Belfast | Bartley D.J.,Moredun Research Institute | Edgar H.W.J.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont | Ellison S.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland sheep flocks was evaluated between July and October 2011. Sampling kits were sent to 172 flock owners and returns were received from 91. Within this survey population, 27 flock owners used benzimidazole products, 10 used levamisole products, 15 used avermectin products, 26 used milbemycin products and 4 flock owners used the amino acetonitrile derivative, Monepantel. The remaining 9 flock owners used combination drenches (broad spectrum wormer plus fasciolicide). However, 15 sets of samples were ineligible for faecal egg count reduction testing due to either too low an egg count or insufficient faecal volume.Treatment efficacy below 95%, indicating significant resistance, was detected in 81% (. n=. 24) of flocks tested for benzimidazole resistance; in 14% (. n=. 1) of flocks tested for levamisole resistance; and in 50% (. n=. 7) and 62% (. n=. 13) of flocks tested for avermectin and milbemycin resistance, respectively. Monepantel resistance was absent in all (. n=. 3) flocks tested.Combination products (broad spectrum nematocide plus flukicide) containing levamisole were entirely effective, while treatment efficacy below 95% was detected in 60% (. n=. 3) of flocks where the nematocide in the combination product was a benzimidazole. Where parasite identification based on coproculture was completed, Trichostrongylus was the dominant genus detected in all cases post-treatment, indicating the occurrence of anthelmintic-resistant Trichostrongylus spp. populations. Benzimidazole efficacy was highest in treating Trichostrongylus spp. (51%) and lowest when treating Teladorsagia spp. Levamisole was 100% effective in treating Cooperia, but ineffective (0%) in treating Trichostrongylus spp. Avermectin efficacy was highest when treating Haemonchus contortus (100%) and Teladorsagia spp. (73%), with a marginally lower efficacy against Trichostrongylus spp. (71%). Moxidectin efficacy was 33% against Trichostrongylus spp., 68% against Teladorsagia spp., 97% against Cooperia spp. and 100% against Haemonchus contortus infections. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Queen's University of Belfast, Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI Stormont, Dundonald House and Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes. A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%). Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance.

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