Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.2-01 | Award Amount: 12.67M | Year: 2011
ANIMALCHANGE will provide scientific guidance on the integration of adaptation and mitigation objectives and design sustainable development pathways for livestock production in Europe, in Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. ANIMALCHANGE will inform public policy development in EU27 and propose cooperation programs addressing smallholder livestock farming in selected developing countries. The core analytical spine of the project is a series of coupled biophysical and socio-economic models combined with experimentation. This allows exploring future scenarios for the livestock sector under baseline and atmospheric CO2 stabilization scenarios. These scenarios are first constructed in Component (CP) 1. They are elaborated and enriched by breakthrough mitigation and adaptation options from CP 2 at field and animal scales, integrated and evaluated at farm scale in CP 3 and used to assess policy options and their socio-economic consequences in CP 4. ANIMALCHANGE will: - Quantify and reduce uncertainties in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess climate change impacts on livestock systems (including grasslands) - Revise estimates of the GHG balance of livestock systems and integrate soil carbon sequestration - Integrate climate variability and extremes into the assessment of impacts, adaptation and vulnerability of livestock systems to climate change - Develop breakthrough technologies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change for both ruminants and monogastrics - Study and quantify trade-offs and synergies between adaptation and mitigation options - Assess the potential societal and sectoral costs and benefits of these options for the livestock sector in Europe and in study regions of Africa and Latin America - Assess climate change vulnerability of animal production and of associated GHG emissions - Provide direct support through the design of an integrated and consistent mitigation and adaptation policy framework for the livestock sector
Henderson G.,Agresearch Ltd.
PloS one | Year: 2013
Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data from studies in which different sampling techniques, different rumen sample fractions or different DNA extraction methods were used should be avoided.
Janssen P.H.,Agresearch Ltd.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010
A descriptive model is presented that can explain changes in the amount of methane (CH4) formed in the rumen in relation to passage rate, feed type, and the effects of pH and inhibitors of methanogenesis. The model is based on methanogen growth kinetics in continuous systems. The growth rate of hydrogen (H2) utilising methanogens in the rumen and the prevailing H2 concentration are dynamically linked. Higher H2 concentrations are required to permit a growth rate sufficient to prevent washout of methanogens from the rumen at higher ruminal passage rates, at suboptimal ruminal pH values, or in the presence of inhibitors. Lower H2 concentrations are possible when the passage rate is lower, when the pH is near optimum, or when methanogens are less affected by inhibitors. Analysis of the literature confirms that increased particulate passage rate is associated with higher rumen H2 concentrations, less CH4 formation, and increased importance of propionate as a fermentation endproduct. Published data also show that partial inhibition of methanogens results in higher H2 concentrations, less CH4 formation, and more propionate formation. The model suggests that the prevailing H2 concentration influences the thermodynamics of rumen fermentation. H2 producing fermentation pathways are favoured at low H2 concentrations. Therefore, feeds and conditions that result in low H2 partial pressures will result in more H2 formation, and less propionate formation, and so more CH4 is formed per mole of feed monomer fermented in the rumen. Conversely, feeds and additives that favour high H2 concentrations result in less H2 formation per mole of feed monomer fermented in the rumen, and so result in production of less CH4 and more propionate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
McDowell R.W.,Agresearch Ltd.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2012
Phosphorus loss from land, due to agricultural intensification, can impair water quality. The quantity lost is a function of runoff and availability, which is affected by inputs and the ability of the soil to retain P. Losses are exacerbated if surface runoff or drainage occurs soon after P inputs (e.g. fertiliser and/or manure and dung). Strategies to mitigate P losses depend on the farming system. The first step is to maintain a farm P balance (inputs-outputs) close to zero and the agronomic optimum. The next step is to use mitigation strategies in areas that lose the most P, but occupy little of the farm or catchment's area. Focusing on these areas, termed critical source areas, is more cost-effective than farm or catchment-wide strategies. However, the worry is that mitigation strategies may not keep pace with losses due to increasing intensification. Therefore, a proactive approach is needed that identifies areas resilient to P inputs and unlikely to lose P if land use is intensified. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Agresearch Ltd. | Date: 2014-04-17
The invention provides a method for encapsulating a protein of interest, the method comprising the step of expressing a fusion protein comprising an N-terminal region of a rearrangement hot spot (RHS)-repeat-containing protein fused to the protein of interest. The invention further provides applications for the encapsulation, release and delivery of the protein of interest. The invention also encompasses the encapsulated protein of interest and compositions comprising the encapsulated protein of interest. The invention also provides uses of the encapsulated protein of interest, optionally after release from encapsulation, to control pests. The encapsulated protein of interest may for example be produced via expression in a plant to control a pest of the plant, such as an insect pest.
Agresearch Ltd. | Date: 2014-03-13
A method of altering the composition of animal waste including introducing internally to an animal one or more treatment substances that can directly or indirectly affect the conversion of nitrogen containing compounds in animal waste, such that animal waste acts as a carrier so that the one or more substances affect the conversion of nitrogen containing compounds once the waste has been excreted from the animal.
Agresearch Ltd. | Date: 2013-10-22
The invention provides modified DGAT1 proteins that are modified in the N-terminal region upstream of the acyl-Co A binding site. The modified DGAT proteins show enhanced activity, without reduced protein accumulation when expressed in cells. The modified DGAT1 proteins of the invention can be expressed in cells to increase cellular lipid accumulation and/or modify the cellular lipid profile. The invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the modified DGAT1 proteins, cells and compositions comprising the polynucleotides or modified DGAT proteins, and methods using the modified DGAT1 proteins to produce oil.
Agresearch Ltd. | Date: 2015-04-30
Provided are methods of reducing milk somatic cell count using L-arginine supplementation of lactating ruminant animals during gestation, and/or during the lactation phase post parturition to decrease somatic cell count in milk produced by the animals.
Agresearch Ltd. | Date: 2015-07-02
The present invention relates to a novel bacterium Yersinia entomophaga MH96 as deposited at DSMZ on 4 May 2006 and designated accession no. DSM 18238. The present invention also relates to substances obtained or derived from Yersinia entomophaga MH96, which retain biopesticide activity. Methods for protecting a plant from pest infestation which include applying to the plant or its environment an effective amount of Yersinia entomophaga MH96 or a product delivered from the bacterium are also described.
Agresearch Ltd. and Agriculture Victoria Services Pty Ltd | Date: 2013-09-13
The present invention relates to nucleic acids and nucleic acid fragments encoding amino acid sequences for flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes in plants, and the use thereof for the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. More particularly, the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme is selected from the group consisting of chalcone isomerase (CHI), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone reductase (CHR), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), flavonoid 3, 5 hydrolase (F35H), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3-hydroxylase (F3H), phenylalanine ammonia-olyase (PAL) and vestitone reductase (VR), and functionally active fragments and variants thereof.